Efficacy and safety of treatments in newly diagnosed adult primary immune thrombocytopenia: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Wang Y, Sheng L, Han F, Guo Q, Zhang Z, Hou Y, Feng Q, Zhou H, Ji X, Peng J, et al
BACKGROUND Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease characterised by decreased platelet count. In recent years, novel therapeutic regimens have been investigated in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of different treatments in newly diagnosed adult primary immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of RCTs involving treatments for newly diagnosed primary immune thrombocytopenia. PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched up to April 31, 2022. The primary outcomes were 6-month sustained response and early response. Secondary outcome was grade 3 or higher adverse events. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022296179). FINDINGS Eighteen RCTs (n = 1944) were included in this study. Pairwise meta-analysis showed that the percentage of patients achieving early response was higher in the dexamethasone-containing doublet group than in the dexamethasone group (79.7% vs 68.7%, odds ratio [OR] 1.82, 95% CI 1.10-3.02). The difference was more profound for sustained response (60.5% vs 37.4%, OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.95-3.40). Network meta-analysis showed that dexamethasone plus recombinant human thrombopoietin ranked first for early response, followed by dexamethasone plus oseltamivir or tacrolimus. Rituximab plus prednisolone achieved highest sustained response, followed by dexamethasone plus all-trans retinoic acid or rituximab. Rituximab plus dexamethasone showed 15.3% of grade 3 or higher adverse events, followed by prednis(ol)one (4.8%) and all-trans retinoic acid plus dexamethasone (4.7%). INTERPRETATION Our findings suggested that compared with monotherapy dexamethasone or prednis(ol)one, the combined regimens had better early and sustained responses. rhTPO plus dexamethasone ranked top in early response, while rituximab plus corticosteroids obtained the best sustained response, but with more adverse events. Adding oseltamivir, all-trans retinoic acid or tacrolimus to dexamethasone reached equally encouraging sustained response, without compromising safety profile. Although this network meta-analysis compared all the therapeutic regimens up to date, more head-to-head RCTs with larger sample size are warranted to make direct comparison among these strategies. FUNDING National Natural Science Foundation of China, Major Research Plan of National Natural Science Foundation of China, Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation and Young Taishan Scholar Foundation of Shandong Province.
A multicenter, randomized phase III trial of hetrombopag: a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia
Mei H, Liu X, Li Y, Zhou H, Feng Y, Gao G, Cheng P, Huang R, Yang L, Hu J, et al
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2021;14(1):37
BACKGROUND Hetrombopag, a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has been found in phase I studies to increase platelet counts and reduce bleeding risks in adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This phase III study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hetrombopag in ITP patients. METHODS Patients who had not responded to or had relapsed after previous treatment were treated with an initial dosage of once-daily 2.5 or 5 mg hetrombopag (defined as the HETROM-2.5 or HETROM-5 group) or with matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 10-week treatment period. Patients who received placebo and completed 10 weeks of treatment switched to receive eltrombopag, and patients treated with hetrombopag in the double-blind period continued hetrombopag during the following open-label 14-week treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of responders (defined as those achieving a platelet count of ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L) after 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS The primary endpoint was achieved by significantly more patients in the HETROM-2.5 (58.9%; odds ratio [OR] 25.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.83-68.63; p < 0.0001) and HETROM-5 (64.3%; OR 32.81, 95% CI 12.39-86.87; p < 0.0001) group than in the Placebo group (5.9%). Hetrombopag was also superior to placebo in achieving a platelet response and in reducing the bleeding risk and use of rescue therapy throughout 8 weeks of treatment. The durable platelet response to hetrombopag was maintained throughout 24 weeks. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (42.2%), urinary tract infection (17.1%), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (17.1%) and hematuria (15%) with 24-week hetrombopag treatment. CONCLUSIONS In ITP patients, hetrombopag is efficacious and well tolerated with a manageable safety profile. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT03222843 , registered July 19, 2017, retrospectively registered.
Higher Efficacy of Infliximab than Immunoglobulin on Kawasaki Disease, a Meta-analysis
Li X, Tang Y, Ding Y, Chen Y, Hou M, Sun L, Qian G, Qin L, Lv H
European journal of pharmacology. 2021;:173985
This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of infliximab as initial therapy for patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistant KD.Studies of infliximab in KD, published between January 2004 and December 2019, were curated from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 12.0. Of the 8 studies considered, 4 evaluated the effect of infliximab combined with IVIG as primary therapy in KD, and the remaining investigated the effect of infliximab in IVIG resistant patients. Infliximab was more effective than the control group, with the total summary odds ratio (OR) of 0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.62). The treatment resistance of the infliximab group was lower than the IVIG group (0.36 [95% CI: 0.14-0.92]) when infliximab was combined with IVIG as the initial treatment. However, infliximab treatment for IVIG resistant KD was more effective than the IVIG group (0.28 [95% CI: 0.12-0.66]). There was no significant increase in the incidence of coronary artery lesions. The total summary OR for the incidence of coronary artery lesions and infliximab treatment was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.48-1.62). There was no statistically significant difference in adverse events (AEs) when compared between the groups (0.71 [95% CI: 0.44-1.16]).Infliximab combined with IVIG reduced treatment resistance in KD patients vs. conventional IVIG therapy. Infliximab improved clinical course in IVIG resistant KD patients. Infliximab treatment did not reduce the incidence of coronary artery lesions and did not show any significant increase in the incidence of AEs. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42020218554.
All-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone as first-line treatment for patients with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenia: a multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial
Huang QS, Liu Y, Wang JB, Peng J, Hou M, Liu H, Feng R, Wang JW, Xu LP, Wang Y, et al
The Lancet. Haematology. 2021;8(10):e688-e699
BACKGROUND High-dose dexamethasone is the standard initial treatment for patients with immune thrombocytopenia, but many patients still relapse and require further treatments. All-trans retinoic acid has been shown to exert immunomodulatory effects and promote thrombopoiesis, and so we aimed to assess the activity and safety of all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone as a first-line treatment for newly diagnosed patients with immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS This multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial was done at six different tertiary medical centres in China. Eligible participants were adults (aged >18 years) with treatment-naive, newly diagnosed, primary immune thrombocytopenia who had either a platelet count of less than 30 × 10(9) platelets per L or a platelet count of less than 50 × 10(9) platelets per L and clinically significant bleeding. We randomly assigned (1:1) participants to receive either all-trans retinoic acid (10 mg orally twice daily for 12 weeks) plus high-dose dexamethasone (40 mg/day intravenously for 4 consecutive days) or high-dose dexamethasone alone using a central, web-based randomisation system. If patients did not respond by day 14, the 4-day course of dexamethasone was repeated. The primary endpoint was 6-month sustained response, defined as the maintenance of a platelet count of at least 30 × 10(9) platelets per L and at least 2-times higher than the baseline count and the absence of bleeding, with no need for rescue medication at this time. The primary endpoint was analysed by intention-to-treat and safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04217148, and is now completed. FINDINGS Between Jan 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, 132 patients were randomly assigned to either all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone (n=66) or high-dose dexamethasone alone (n=66). Three patients did not receive their allocated treatment, leaving 129 in the safety analysis set. At 6 months, a significantly higher proportion of participants in the all-trans retinoic acid plus high-dose dexamethasone group (45 [68%] of 66) than in the high-dose dexamethasone monotherapy group (27 [41%] of 66) had a sustained response (OR 3·095, 95% CI 1·516-6·318; p=0·0017). The most common adverse events were dry skin (31 [48%] of 64 patients), headaches (12 [19%]), and insomnia (12 [19%]) in the combination group, and insomnia (ten [15%] of 65 patients) and anxiety or mood disorders (eight [12%]) in the monotherapy group. Both treatments were well tolerated and no grade 4 or worse adverse events occurred. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION The combination of all-trans retinoic acid and high-dose dexamethasone was safe and active in newly diagnosed patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia, providing a sustained response. This regimen represents a potential first-line treatment in this setting, but further studies are needed to validate its efficacy and safety. FUNDING The Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, and the Foundation for Innovative Research Groups of the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in Chinese patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia: stage 2 results from a multicenter phase III study
Liu X, Hou M, Li J, Jin J, Huang M, Yu Z, Xu X, Zhang X, Yang R
This phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted in three stages (6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled stage 1; 24-week, open-label stage 2; and continuous extension stage 3) assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of eltrombopag use in Chinese patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This article presents the results from stage 2. Overall, 150 patients (placebo-eltrombopag [P-E], 50; eltrombopag-eltrombopag [E-E], 100) received open-label eltrombopag. The median platelet count was maintained between 41 × 10(9)/L and 80 × 10(9)/L. Most patients in both groups (P-E, 90.0%; E-E, 81.8%) achieved platelet counts ≥30 × 10(9)/L and ≥2 times the baseline platelet count at least once with eltrombopag treatment. Overall, 32% of patients achieved platelet counts ≥50 × 10(9)/L in ≥75% of platelet count assessments. Both groups showed a decreased tendency to infrequent bleeding and clinically significant bleeding events during stage 2 compared with baseline. Among patients who received ≥1 ITP medication at baseline, 70.4% in the P-E group and 40.8% in the E-E group reduced or permanently stopped ≥1 of their ITP medications. The stage 2 results further demonstrated a sustainable long-term efficacy and good tolerability of eltrombopag with a favorable benefit-risk ratio in Chinese chronic ITP patients. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01762761. Registered 8 January 2013, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01762761.
High-dose dexamethasone plus recombinant human thrombopoietin versus high-dose dexamethasone alone as frontline treatment for newly diagnosed adult primary immune thrombocytopenia:a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial
Yu Y, Wang M, Hou Y, Qin P, Zeng Q, Yu W, Guo X, Wang J, Wang X, Liu G, et al
American journal of hematology. 2020
We conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare the efficacy and safety of high-dose dexamethasone (HD-DXM) plus recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) versus HD-DXM alone in newly diagnosed adult immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned to receive DXM plus rhTPO or DXM monotherapy. Another 4-day course of DXM was repeated if response was not achieved by day 10 in both arms. One hundred patients in the HD-DXM plus rhTPO arm and 96 patients in the HD-DXM monotherapy arm were included in the full analysis set. HD-DXM plus rhTPO resulted in a higher incidence of initial response (89.0% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.001) and complete response (CR, 75.0% vs. 42.7%, P < 0.001) compared with HD-DXM monotherapy. Response rate at 6 months was also higher in the HD-DXM plus rhTPO arm than that in the HD-DXM monotherapy arm (51.0% vs. 36.5%, P = 0.02; sustained CR: 46.0% vs. 32.3%, P = 0.043). Throughout the follow-up period, the overall duration of response was greater in the HD-DXM plus rhTPO arm compared to the HD-DXM monotherapy arm (P = 0.04), as estimated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis. The study drugs were generally well tolerated. In conclusion, the combination of HD-DXM with rhTPO significantly improved the initial response and yielded favorable SR in newly diagnosed ITP patients, thus could be further validated as a frontline treatment for ITP. This study is registered as clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01734044. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Iron Chelation in Transfusion-Dependent Patients With Low- to Intermediate-1-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Randomized Trial
Angelucci E, Li J, Greenberg P, Wu D, Hou M, Montano Figueroa EH, Rodriguez MG, Dong X, Ghosh J, Izquierdo M, et al
Ann Intern Med. 2020
Background: Iron chelation therapy (ICT) in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has not been evaluated in randomized studies. Objective: To evaluate event-free survival (EFS) and safety of ICT in iron-overloaded patients with low- or intermediate-1-risk MDS. Design: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (TELESTO). (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00940602). Setting: 60 centers in 16 countries. Participants: 225 patients with serum ferritin levels greater than 2247 pmol/L; prior receipt of 15 to 75 packed red blood cell units; and no severe cardiac, liver, or renal abnormalities. Intervention: Deferasirox dispersible tablets (10 to 40 mg/kg per day) (n = 149) or matching placebo (n = 76). Measurements: The primary end point was EFS, defined as time from date of randomization to first documented nonfatal event (related to cardiac or liver dysfunction and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia) or death, whichever occurred first. Results: Median time on treatment was 1.6 years (interquartile range [IQR], 0.5 to 3.1 years) in the deferasirox group and 1.0 year (IQR, 0.6 to 2.0 years) in the placebo group. Median EFS was prolonged by approximately 1 year with deferasirox versus placebo (3.9 years [95% CI, 3.2 to 4.3 years] vs. 3.0 years [CI, 2.2 to 3.7 years], respectively; hazard ratio, 0.64 [CI, 0.42 to 0.96]). Adverse events occurred in 97.3% of deferasirox recipients and 90.8% of placebo recipients. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates of adverse events (≥15 events per 100 patient treatment-years) in deferasirox versus placebo recipients, respectively, were 24.7 versus 23.9 for diarrhea, 21.8 versus 18.7 for pyrexia, 16.7 versus 22.7 for upper respiratory tract infection, and 15.9 versus 0.9 for increased serum creatinine concentration. Limitations: The protocol was amended from a phase 3 to a phase 2 study, with a reduced target sample size from 630 to 210 participants. There was differential follow-up between treatment groups. Conclusion: The findings support ICT in iron-overloaded patients with low- to intermediate-1-risk MDS, with longer EFS compared with placebo and a clinically manageable safety profile. Therefore, ICT may be considered in these patients. Primary Funding Source: Novartis Pharma AG.
Iron-overloaded patients with low- or intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), (n= 225).
Deferasirox dispersible tablets (10 to 40 mg/kg per day), (n= 149).
Matching placebo (n = 76).
Median time on treatment was 1.6 years in the deferasirox group and 1.0 year in the placebo group. Median EFS was prolonged by approximately 1 year with deferasirox versus placebo (3.9 years vs. 3.0 years, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.64. Adverse events occurred in 97.3% of deferasirox recipients and 90.8% of placebo recipients. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates of adverse events (>/=15 events per 100 patient treatment-years) in deferasirox versus placebo recipients, respectively, were 24.7 versus 23.9 for diarrhea, 21.8 versus 18.7 for pyrexia, 16.7 versus 22.7 for upper respiratory tract infection, and 15.9 versus 0.9 for increased serum creatinine concentration.
Oral all-trans retinoic acid plus danazol versus danazol as second-line treatment in adults with primary immune thrombocytopenia: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2 trial
Feng FE, Feng R, Wang M, Zhang JM, Jiang H, Jiang Q, Lu J, Liu H, Peng J, Hou M, et al
The Lancet. Haematology. 2017;4((10):):e487-e496. e487
BACKGROUND Primary immune thrombocytopenia is a severe bleeding disorder. About 50-85% of patients achieve initial remission from first-line therapies, but optimal second-line treatment remains a challenge. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has an immunomodulatory effect on haemopoiesis, making it a possible treatment option. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATRA plus danazol versus danazol in non-splenectomised patients with corticosteroid-resistant or relapsed primary immune thrombocytopenia. METHODS We did a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2 study of adult patients (≥18 years) with primary immune thrombocytopenia from five different tertiary medical centres in China. Those eligible were non-splenectomised, resistant to corticosteroid treatment or relapsed, and had a platelet count less than 30 x 109 per L. Masked statisticians used simple randomisation to assign patients (1:1) to receive oral ATRA (10 mg twice daily) plus oral danazol (200 mg twice daily) or oral danazol monotherapy (200 mg twice daily) for 16 weeks. Neither clinicians nor patients were masked to group assignments. All patients were assessed every week during the first 8 weeks of treatment, and at 2-week intervals thereafter. The primary endpoint was 12-month sustained response defined as platelet count of 30 x 109 per L or more and at least a doubling of baseline platelet count (partial response), or a platelet count of 100 x 109 per L or more (complete response) and the absence of bleeding without rescue medication at the 12-month follow-up. All randomly allocated patients, except for those who withdrew consent, were included in the modified intention-to-treat population and efficacy assessment, and all patients who received at least one dose of the study agents were included in the safety analysis. Study enrolment was stopped early because the trial results crossed the interim analysis efficacy boundary for sustained response. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01667263. FINDINGS From June 1, 2012, to July 1, 2016, we screened 130 patients for eligibility; 34 were excluded and 96 were randomly assigned. 93 patients were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis: 45 in the ATRA plus danazol group and 48 in the danazol group. At the 12-month follow-up, sustained response was achieved more frequently in patients receiving ATRA plus danazol than in those receiving danazol monotherapy (28 [62%] of 45 vs 12 [25%] of 48; odds ratio 4.94, 95% CI 2.03-12.02, p=0.00037). Only two grade 3 adverse events were reported: one (2%) patient receiving ATRA plus danazol with dry skin, and one (2%) patient receiving danazol monotherapy with liver injury. There was no grade 4 or worse adverse event or treatment-related death in either group. INTERPRETATION Patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia given ATRA plus danazol had a rapid and sustained response compared with danazol monotherapy. This finding suggests that ATRA represents a promising candidate for patients with corticosteroid-resistant or relapsed primary immune thrombocytopenia. FUNDING National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing Natural Science Foundation, Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, and the National Key Research and Development Program of China.
Multicentre, randomised phase III study of the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in Chinese patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia
Yang R, Li J, Jin J, Huang M, Yu Z, Xu X, Zhang X, Hou M
British Journal of Haematology. 2016;176((1):):101-110
Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, raises platelet counts and reduces bleeding in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). In Chinese patients, eltrombopag was evaluated at an initial dose of 25 mg, vs. 50 mg for non-Asians, because the plasma exposure of eltrombopag is higher in East Asians. A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, 8-week, phase III study enrolled 155 patients with chronic, previously treated ITP. Dosage could be adjusted (25-75 mg/day) to maintain platelet counts 50-250 x 109 /l. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with a platelet count ≥50 x 109 /l after Day 42. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of eltrombopag were analysed in an open-label extension. After Day 42, 57.7% of eltrombopag-treated and 6.0% of placebo-treated patients achieved platelet counts ≥50 x 109 /l. Odds of achieving a platelet count ≥50 x 109 /l were 26.08 times greater with eltrombopag than placebo (P < 0.001). Compared with placebo, time to response and duration of response were better with eltrombopag (P < 0.001) and the odds of any bleeding were reduced by 72% (P = 0.001). Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics were similar to previous findings in East Asian patients. In conclusion, in Chinese patients with chronic ITP, eltrombopag 25 mg once daily, elevated platelet counts to a safe range and reduced bleeding.
Effect of eltrombopag on platelet response and safety results in Chinese adults with chronic ITP - primary result of a phase III study
Yang R, Hou M, Li J, Jin J, Huang M, Yu Z, Xu X, Zhang X, Du X, Niu T, et al
Blood. 2014;124((21)): Abstract No. 1464