Association of active immunotherapy with outcomes in cancer patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are growing concerns about the safety of administering immunotherapy in cancer patients with COVID-19. However, current clinical guidelines provided no clear recommendation. METHODS Studies were searched and retrieved from electronic databases. The meta-analysis was performed by employing the generic inverse-variance method. A random-effects model was used to calculate the unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs with the corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS This meta-analysis included 20 articles with 6,042 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19. According to the univariate analysis, the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the mortality of cancer patients (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.68-1.25; P=0.61). Moreover, after adjusting for confounders, the adjusted OR for mortality was 0.51, with borderline significance (95% CI: 0.25-1.01; P=0.053). Similarly, the univariate analysis showed that the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the risk of severe/critical disease in cancer patients (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.47; P=0.66). No significant between-study heterogeneity was found in these analyses. CONCLUSIONS Accepting immunotherapy within 30 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 was not significantly associated with a higher risk of mortality or severe/critical disease of infected cancer patients. Further prospectively designed studies with large sample sizes are required to evaluate the present results.
Early Tranexamic Acid in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:721125
Objective: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a common complication of traumatic brain, in which tranexamic acid has been recommended as an additional therapy to prevent a second bleeding. However, the effect of early administration of tranexamic acid for ICH patients remains controversial. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science. Poor outcome refers to significant hemorrhage growth, new intracranial hemorrhage, new focal cerebral ischaemic lesions, the need for neurosurgery, or death. Study heterogeneity and publication bias were estimated. Results: Seven randomized controlled trials involving 3,192 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Tranexamic acid administration in ICH patients was associated with better outcomes of hematoma expansion (odd ratios [OR] 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI) CI, 0.67-0.93; I (2) = 0%; P = 0.006) and growth of hemorrhagic lesions (weighted mean difference [WMD], -1.97 ml; 95% CI, -2.94 to -1.00; I (2) = 14%; P < 0.001) than the placebo. No difference was found between the mortality, poor outcome, neurosurgical intervention, new bleeding, and the duration of hospital stay. Moreover, no publication bias was found. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that the early treatment with tranexamic acid can significantly reduce the incidence of hematoma expansion and the volume of hemorrhagic lesion, but does not exert considerable effects on mortality, poor outcome, neurosurgery, rebleeding, and the duration of stay.
Metabolomics-Based Clinical Efficacy of Compound Shenlu Granule, a Chinese Patent Medicine, in the Supportive Management of Aplastic Anemia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:6655848
OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical efficacy and mechanism of compound Shenlu granule (SLG) treatment in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). METHODS A total of 89 AA patients were randomly divided into an SLG supportive group (group A, n = 44) and a control group (group B, n = 45) while continuing Western medical management. After 6 months, hemograms, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, and overall clinical efficacy rate were assessed. Serum metabolomics characteristics were observed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after SLG intervention. RESULTS The levels of red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and platelet (PLT) were increased in both groups after treatment for 6 months (P < 0.05), and in group A, the elevation of PLT became much more significant (P < 0.01). The TCM syndrome score was lower in group A than in group B after treatment (P < 0.05). Metabolomics data showed a significant difference in the patients using SLG after 6 months, and 14 biomarkers were identified. CONCLUSION SLG supportive treatment showed positive results in patients with AA, and metabolomics data indicated that SLG influenced aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and glycerophospholipid metabolism to gradually return to normal.
Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Placebo in the Treatment of Tendinopathy: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine. 2021
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections versus placebo in the treatment of tendinopathy. DATA SOURCES We performed a systematic literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov through November 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the clinical efficacy of PRP versus placebo for the treatment of tendinopathy. Outcomes were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis with random-effects models. MAIN RESULTS A total of 13 RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled analysis showed no significant difference in pain relief at 4 to 6 weeks (standard mean difference [SMD]: -0.18, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: -0.62 to 0.26), 12 weeks (SMD: -0.14, 95% CI: -0.55 to 0.26), and ≥24 weeks (SMD: -0.56, 95% CI: -1.16 to 0.05) or function improvement at 4 to 6 weeks (SMD: 0.11, 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.35), 12 weeks (SMD: 0.18, 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.49), and ≥24 weeks (SMD: 0.26, 95% CI: -0.14 to 0.66) for PRP compared with placebo in the treatment of tendinopathy. The sensitivity analysis indicated no significant difference in pain relief or function improvement at 12 weeks between PRP and placebo for different types of tendinopathies, treatment regimens, leukocyte concentrations, or cointerventions. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma injection was not found to be superior to placebo in the treatment of tendinopathy, as measured by pain relief and functional improvement at 4 to 6, 12, and ≥24 weeks.
Surgical vs. Conservative Management for Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage, a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:742959
BACKGROUND Outcomes regarding the conventional surgical and conservative treatment for the lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have not been previously compared. The current meta-analysis was designed to review and compile the evidence regarding the management of patients with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Online electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were selected on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Trials with CT-confirmed lobar intracerebral hemorrhage patients of which treatment regimen was started within 72 h following the stroke were included. Low quality trials were excluded. Death or dependence was defined as primary outcome and death at the end of the follow up was the secondary outcome. RESULTS One hundred five RCTs were screened and 96 articles were excluded on the basis of abstract. Nine articles were assessed for the eligibility and 7 trials were included that involved 1,102 patients. The Odds ratio (OR) for the primary outcome was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.62-1.04, p = 0.09) and for the secondary outcome was 0.79 (95%CI, 0.60-1.03, p = 0.09). CONCLUSION Our findings suggested that surgical treatments did not significantly improve the functional outcome as compared with the conservative medical management for patients with lobar ICH.
Patients with lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (7 studies, n= 1,102).
Surgical treatment, including: endoscopic surgery, open craniotomy, stereotactic aspiration, and endoscopic surgery plus stereotactic aspiration, (n= 552).
Conservative management, including non-surgical or pharmacological (n= 550).
The overall results showed a non-significant trend toward better prognosis in the surgical group (OR 0.80). No significant difference was observed for death at the end of the follow up between surgical and conservative medical management groups.
Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Pre-Procedural Serum Albumin on Mortality in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
International heart journal. 2020
Pre-procedural serum albumin's impact on prognosis after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been studied. Literature on the prognostic role of serum albumin in the survival of patients undergoing TAVR shows conflicting results. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of pre-procedural serum albumin on outcomes after TAVR. A comprehensive literature search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library was undertaken through July 2019. The primary end points were 30-day and one-year all-cause mortality after TAVR. Risk ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effect model. Ten eligible studies with 8,236 patients were analyzed. Of the 8,236 patients undergoing TAVR, with a mean age of 83 years, 48.8% were men and were categorized into two groups according to low and normal serum albumin (cut-off value: 3.5 or 4 g/dL). Overall, low albumin was significantly associated with an approximately two-fold increase in 30-day all-cause mortality (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.53-2.86) and a 61% increase risk for one-year mortality (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.31-1.98) in patients after TAVR. Sensitivity analyses showed the results to be robust. The association of low albumin level with an increase in one-year mortality risk was not modified by study design, albumin cut-off value, Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality (STS-PROM), and study quality. In conclusion, low albumin levels were associated with poor prognosis in patients after TAVR. Pre-procedural albumin can be used as a simple tool related to prognosis after TAVR.
Relative efficacy and safety of early lactate clearance-guided therapy resuscitation in patients with sepsis: A meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE Compelling evidence has shown that aggressive resuscitation bundles are one of the cornerstones of the successful treatment of patients with sepsis. Recent studies suggest that lactate normalization during resuscitation is a more powerful indicator of resuscitative adequacy; however, early lactate clearance-guided therapy is still not recommended. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of early lactate clearance-directed therapy as a potentially more effective resuscitation target. METHODS Studies were identified using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library without region, publication type, or language restrictions. Randomized trials were included when they compared the efficacy and safety of lactate clearance-guided resuscitation versus central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2)-guided therapy. The primary outcome was mortality, and the secondary outcomes were intensive care unit (ICU) stay, length of hospital stay, mechanical ventilation time, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score, and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. RESULTS Seven randomized controlled trials encompassing 1301 cases were reviewed. Compared with guided ScvO2 therapy, early lactate clearance-directed therapy was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality (relative ratio [RR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 0.82), shorter ICU stay (mean difference [MD] -1.64 days, 95% CI -3.23 to -0.05), shorter mechanical ventilation time (MD -10.22 hours, 95% CI -15.94 to -4.5), and lower APACHE-II scores (MD -4.47, 95% CI -7.25 to -1.69). However, patients undergoing early lactate clearance-guided therapy had similar lengths of hospital stay and similar SOFA scores. CONCLUSIONS As a specific indicator of resuscitation outcome, lactate clearance alone is superior to ScvO2 alone during a standard resuscitation paradigm. The optimal or desired rate of lactate clearance is still a contentious area. To guide resuscitation and normalize lactate levels in patients, repeating lactate measurements every 2 hours until the patient has met a lactate clearance of 10% or greater may be helpful. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER PROSPERO CRD42018100515.
Fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2018;14:1701-1709.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different fluids on critically ill patients who need fluid resuscitation through a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). Data sources: Electronic databases were searched up to March 2018 for randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of different fluids in critically ill patients. The primary outcome was mortality, and the secondary outcomes were the incident of acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk of receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT). A Bayesian NMA was conducted, and the quality of evidence contributing to each network estimate was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. Results: We deemed 49 trials eligible, including 40,910 participants. The quality of evidence was rated as moderate in most comparisons. There was no significant difference among resuscitation fluids in mortality. NMA at the 9-node level showed the most effective fluid was balanced crystalloid (BC) (80.79%, the ranking of resuscitation fluid based on cumulative probability plots and surface under the cumulative ranking curves [SUCRAs]). NMA at the 10-node level showed that the most effective fluid was Plasma-Lyte (77.52%). Results of sensitivity analyses in mortality did not reveal any significant changes in the findings for primary outcomes. High-molecular-weight hetastarch (H-HES) was associated with an increased incidence of AKI when compared with gelatin (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.19-0.94), low-molecular-weight hetastarch (L-HES; OR, 0.50; 95% CrI, 0.30-0.87), BC (OR, 0.55; 95% CrI, 0.34-0.88), and normal saline (OR, 0.56; 95% CrI, 0.34-0.93). Meanwhile, H-HES was also associated with an increased risk of receiving RRT when compared with BC (OR, 0.51; 95% CrI, 0.27-0.93) and normal saline (OR, 0.52; 95% CrI, 0.24-0.96). Conclusion: BCs, especially the Plasma-Lyte, are presumably the best choice for most critically ill patients who need fluid resuscitation. Meanwhile, the use of H-HES was associated with an increased incidence of AKI and risk of receiving RRT. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42017072728).
Timing of surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International Journal of Surgery (London, England). 2017;48:266-274.
INTRODUCTION The timing of surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage influences the outcome, but the optimal timing remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review to clarify whether early surgery was better than late surgery for improving outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS We systematically searched several databases to screen eligible studies. After synthesizing data, an overall effect was shown using a risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were stratified by multiple variables to control the confounding factors. Sensitivity analyses were applied to check the robustness of the results. Publication bias was measured with Egger's and Begg's tests. RESULTS A total of 14 studies were included in the analysis. Compared with late surgery, early surgery significantly decreased the incidence of poor outcome, regardless of whether patients were in good condition (RR, 0.65 [95%CI, 0.50 0.84]; p = 0.001) or in poor condition on admission (RR, 0.71 [95%CI, 0.61 0.83]; p < 0.0001). Moreover, when patients were in good condition on admission, early surgery also effectively reduced the death rate (RR, 0.61 [95%CI, 0.46 0.82]; p = 0.001). Additionally, early surgery reduced the death rate compared with late surgery in patients older than 50 years (RR, 0.49 [95%CI, 0.27 0.89]; p < 0.002). CONCLUSIONS Early surgery was superior to late surgery in reducing a poor outcome and death rate when patients were in good condition on admission, and decreased the incidence of poor outcome when patients were in poor condition on admission. Age was a potential confounding factor, influencing the effect of early surgery. Further study is required on this issue.