Randomized controlled pilot study of the preoperative use of brimonidine 0.33%topical gel for hemostasis in Mohs micrographic surgery
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2017;77((6):):1114-1118
BACKGROUND Brimonidine topical gel may be useful in cutaneous surgical procedures because of its vasoconstricting properties. OBJECTIVE Assess the hemostatic effect of topically applied brimonidine in patients being treated with anticoagulants and undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). METHODS Subjects undergoing MMS were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10) or study arm (n = 14). Controls received standard-of-care MMS, whereas the study arm received the same and preoperative application of brimonidine. Evaluations included rate of blood flow, percentage of wound bed surface area needing electrocautery, and changes in skin colorimeter readings. RESULTS The treatment arm had 68% less blood loss over 30 seconds versus the control arm (P < .05). No patient in the brimonidine arm had more than 50% of the wound bed cauterized versus 80% in the controls. Erythema in the treatment arm was decreased by 3.89 times (P < .01) versus in the control arm. LIMITATIONS Limitations were small sample size; sites limited to the face; the fact that measurement of bleeding did not account for anesthetic mixed with blood; visual estimation of percentage of wound surface area requiring cauterization; and no measurement of volume of anesthesia, wound depth, or postoperative complications. CONCLUSION Preoperative application of brimonidine 0.33% gel may help decrease blood loss and the need for electrocautery during MMS for patients taking anticoagulants.
Fluid resuscitation in patients with severe burns: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Academic Emergency Medicine : Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. 2017;25((3):):320-329
OBJECTIVES Fluid resuscitation is the mainstay treatment to reconstitute intravascular volume and maintain end-organ perfusion in patients with severe burns. The use of a hyper-osmotic or iso-osmotic solution in fluid resuscitation to manage myocardial depression and increased capillary permeability during burn shock has been debated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of hyper-osmotic and iso-osmotic solutions in restoring hemodynamic stability after burn injuries. METHODS PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials. gov registry were searched. Randomized control trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of hyper-osmotic and iso-osmotic fluid resuscitation in patients with burn injuries were selected. Eligible trials were abstracted and assessed for the risk of bias by 2 reviewers and results of hemodynamic indicators in the included trials were analyzed. RESULTS Ten trials including 502 participants were published between 1983 and 2013. Compared with iso-osmotic group, the hyper-osmotic group exhibited a significant decrease in the fluid load (vol/%TBSA/weight) at 24 h postinjury, with a mean difference of -0.54 (95% confidence interval = -0.92 to -0.17). No differences were observed in the urine output, creatinine level, and mortality at 24 h postinjury between groups. CONCLUSIONS Hyper-osmotic fluid resuscitation appears to be an attractive choice for severe burns in terms of total body surface area or burn depth. Further investigation is recommended before conclusive recommendation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The efficacy of combined use of rivaroxaban and tranexamic acid on blood conservation in minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty a double-blind randomized, controlled trial
The Journal of Arthroplasty. 2016;32((3):):801-806
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) was reportedly to decrease postoperative blood loss after standard total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the blood-conservation effect of TXA in minimally invasive TKA, in particular, receiving a direct oral anticoagulant was unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of combined use of TXA and rivaroxaban on postoperative blood loss in primary minimally invasive TKA. METHODS In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, 198 patients were assigned to placebo (98 patients, normal saline injection) and study group (100 patients, 1g TXA intraoperative injection) during primary unilateral minimally invasive TKA. All patients received rivaroxaban 10 mg each day for 14 doses postoperatively. Total blood loss was calculated from the maximum hemoglobin drop after surgery plus amount of transfusion. The transfusion rate and wound complications were recorded in all patients. Deep-vein thrombosis was detected by ascending venography of the leg 15 days postoperatively. RESULTS The mean total blood loss was lower in the study group (1020 mL [95% confidence interval, 960-1080 mL]) compared with placebo (1202 mL [95% confidence interval, 1137-1268 mL]) (P < .001). The transfusion rate was lower in the study group compared with placebo (1% vs 8.2%, P = .018). Postoperative wound hematoma and ecchymosis were higher in placebo than the study group (P = .003). There was no symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in either group. CONCLUSION Systemic administration of TXA can effectively reduce the postoperative blood loss which results in lower rate of transfusion requirement and wound hematoma in minimally invasive TKA patients when rivaroxaban is used for thromboprophylaxis. Rivaroxaban has a high rate of bleeding complications when used alone in TKA patients.
The blood-saving effect of tranexamic acid in minimally invasive total knee replacement: is an additional pre-operative injection effective?
Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume. 2012;94((7):):932-6.
Tranexamic acid (TEA), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis, reduces blood loss after routine total knee replacement (TKR). However, controversy persists regarding the dosage and timing of administration of this drug during surgery. We performed a prospective randomised controlled study to examine the optimum blood-saving effect of TEA in minimally invasiveTKR. We randomly assigned 151 patients who underwent unilateral minimally invasive TKR to three groups: 1) a placebo group (50 patients); 2) a one-dose TEA group (52 patients), who received one injection of TEA (10 mg/kg) intra-operatively on deflation of the tourniquet; and 3) a two-dose TEA group (49 patients), who received two injections of TEA (10 mg/kg) given pre-operatively and intra-operatively. Total blood loss was calculated from the maximum loss of haemoglobin. All patients were followed clinically for the presence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The mean total blood loss was significantly higher in the placebo group than in the other two groups (1222ml (845 to 2043) versus 1035ml (397 to 1934) and 986ml (542 to 1811), respectively (both p < 0.0001)). The mean blood loss was not significantly different between the one- and two-TEA groups (p = 0.148). The mean transfusion rate was higher in the placebo group than in the other two groups (22% versus 3.8% (p = 0.006) and 6.1% (p=0.041), respectively) and there was no statistically significant difference in the mean transfusion rate between the one- and two-TEA groups (p = 0.672). Only one patient, in the two-dose group, had a radiologically confirmed deep venous thrombosis. Our prospective randomised controlled study showed that one intra-operative injection of TEA is effective for blood conservation after minimally invasive TKR
Comparing chronic pain between fibrin sealant and suture fixation for bilayer polypropylene mesh inguinal hernioplasty: a randomized clinical trial
American Journal of Surgery. 2011;202((1):):34-8.
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative pain, complications, and recurrence after bilayer polypropylene mesh inguinal hernioplasty using fibrin sealant versus sutures for fixation. METHODS Patients were assigned randomly to either a mesh fixed with suture group (n = 26) or a mesh fixed with fibrin sealant group (n = 30). Postoperative pain was evaluated with a visual analogue scale at days 1 and 7, and the first, third, and sixth month postoperatively. Complications and hernia recurrence were recorded. RESULTS At each time point after surgery, visual analogue scale pain scores in the fibrin sealant group were lower but there was no statistically significant difference. There were no differences in complications or hernia recurrence between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS Fibrin sealant is associated with similar rates of complications and recurrence as mesh fixation with sutures. There was no statistical difference in pain 6 months postoperatively between the 2 groups.