Psychological intervention in children with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia
Vox sanguinis. 2021
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia can lead to severe psychological issues in paediatric and adolescent patients. However, the psychological interventions for these patients are limited in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the impact of a 3-month psychological intervention on the quality of life (QOL) of children with β-thalassaemia (12-18 years old) who relied on blood transfusion in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the current randomized controlled trial, a total of 143 paediatric or adolescent patients (12-18 years old) with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia were recruited. They were randomized into the control group (n = 71) who received standard physiological treatment and the intervention group (n = 72) who received a 3-month intervention in addition to standard physiological treatment. The effects of the interventions on the QOL and psychological outcomes of these participants were analysed. RESULTS The 3-month intervention significantly improved the scores of PedsQoL 4.0 Generic Core Scales of paediatric patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia. It also significantly improved the psychological status and alleviated the depression among children and adolescent patients by alleviating anhedonia, negative mood and negative self-esteem among them. CONCLUSION Psychological intervention has positive effects on the treatment for children with transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia.
Randomized Trial of Different initial IVIG Regimens in Kawasaki Disease
Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society. 2021
BACKGROUND We aimed to assess the efficacy of different initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) regimens in Kawasaki disease (KD) patients to find more cost-effective therapy options. METHODS A multicentre, open-label, blind-endpoint randomized controlled trial was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015. KD Patients within 10 days of illness were randomly assigned to receive different IVIG regimens (Group A, 2 g/kg once; Group B, 1 g/kg for 2 consecutive days; Group C, 1 g/kg once) and aspirin 30mg/kg/d. Primary outcomes included hours to defervescence and development of coronary artery lesions (CAL) during the study period. Major secondary outcomes included total fever days, total dose of IVIG, changes of laboratory data, length of stay, and hospitalization expenses. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02439996). RESULTS A total of 404 patients underwent randomization. No difference was found in the outcomes of defervescence among three groups at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours after completion of initial IVIG infusion. There were no differences in the incidence of CAL during the study period (at week 2, month 1, month 3, and month 6 of illness), changes of laboratory data, total fever days and length of stay. Group C patients had the lowest total dose of IVIG (mean: 1.2 vs 2.2 vs 2.1 g/kg; P<0.001) and hospitalization expenses (mean: 8443.8 vs 10798.4 vs 11011.4 RMB; P<0.001) than other two groups. CONCLUSIONS A single dose of 1g/kg IVIG is a low-cost treatment with the same efficacy as 2 g/kg IVIG and can be an option for the initial therapy of KD patients.
Efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in Chinese patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia: stage 2 results from a multicenter phase III study
This phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted in three stages (6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled stage 1; 24-week, open-label stage 2; and continuous extension stage 3) assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of eltrombopag use in Chinese patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This article presents the results from stage 2. Overall, 150 patients (placebo-eltrombopag [P-E], 50; eltrombopag-eltrombopag [E-E], 100) received open-label eltrombopag. The median platelet count was maintained between 41 × 10(9)/L and 80 × 10(9)/L. Most patients in both groups (P-E, 90.0%; E-E, 81.8%) achieved platelet counts ≥30 × 10(9)/L and ≥2 times the baseline platelet count at least once with eltrombopag treatment. Overall, 32% of patients achieved platelet counts ≥50 × 10(9)/L in ≥75% of platelet count assessments. Both groups showed a decreased tendency to infrequent bleeding and clinically significant bleeding events during stage 2 compared with baseline. Among patients who received ≥1 ITP medication at baseline, 70.4% in the P-E group and 40.8% in the E-E group reduced or permanently stopped ≥1 of their ITP medications. The stage 2 results further demonstrated a sustainable long-term efficacy and good tolerability of eltrombopag with a favorable benefit-risk ratio in Chinese chronic ITP patients. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01762761. Registered 8 January 2013, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01762761.
Multicentre, randomised phase III study of the efficacy and safety of eltrombopag in Chinese patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia
British Journal of Haematology. 2016;176((1):):101-110
Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, raises platelet counts and reduces bleeding in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). In Chinese patients, eltrombopag was evaluated at an initial dose of 25 mg, vs. 50 mg for non-Asians, because the plasma exposure of eltrombopag is higher in East Asians. A multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, 8-week, phase III study enrolled 155 patients with chronic, previously treated ITP. Dosage could be adjusted (25-75 mg/day) to maintain platelet counts 50-250 x 109 /l. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with a platelet count ≥50 x 109 /l after Day 42. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of eltrombopag were analysed in an open-label extension. After Day 42, 57.7% of eltrombopag-treated and 6.0% of placebo-treated patients achieved platelet counts ≥50 x 109 /l. Odds of achieving a platelet count ≥50 x 109 /l were 26.08 times greater with eltrombopag than placebo (P < 0.001). Compared with placebo, time to response and duration of response were better with eltrombopag (P < 0.001) and the odds of any bleeding were reduced by 72% (P = 0.001). Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics were similar to previous findings in East Asian patients. In conclusion, in Chinese patients with chronic ITP, eltrombopag 25 mg once daily, elevated platelet counts to a safe range and reduced bleeding.
Platelet-rich plasmapheresis in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of the effect on transfusion requirements
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 1998;116((4):):641-7.
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to determine whether intraoperative platelet-rich plasmapheresis in cardiac surgery is effective in reducing the proportion of patients exposed to allogeneic red cell transfusions. METHODS A systematic search for prospective, randomized trials of platelet-rich plasmapheresis in cardiac surgery, using MEDLINE, HEALTHSTAR, Current Contents, Biological Abstracts, and EMBASE/Excerpta Medica up to August 1997, was completed. Trials were included if they reported either the proportion of patients exposed to allogeneic red cells or the units of allogeneic red cells transfused. Trials were abstracted by 2 independent investigators and the quality of trial design was assessed with the use of a validated scale. RESULTS Seventeen references met the inclusion criteria (1369 patients (675 control: 694 platelet-rich plasmapheresis)). Plateletrich plasmapheresis reduced the likelihood of exposure to allogeneic red cells in cardiac surgery (odds ratio 0.44; 95% confidence interval 0.27, 0.72, P = .001). Platelet-rich plasmapheresis had a small but statistically significant effect on both the volume of blood lost in the first 24 hours (weighted mean difference -102 mL; 95% confidence interval -148, -55 mL, P < .0001) and the mean units transfused (weighted mean difference -0.33 units; 95% confidence interval -0.43, -0.23, P < .0001). However, platelet-rich plasmapheresis was only marginally effective (odds ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.34, 2.01, P = .68) for good quality trials, whereas it appeared very effective in trials with poor methodologic quality (odds ratio 0.33, 95% confidence interval 0.17, 0.62, P = .0007). CONCLUSIONS Although platelet-rich plasmapheresis appeared effective in decreasing the proportion of patients receiving transfusions after cardiac operations, the quality of most of the supporting trials was low and the benefit was small in trials of good quality. Further clinical trials should be completed.