Outcomes of long-term von Willebrand factor prophylaxis use in von Willebrand disease: A systematic literature review
Haemophilia : the official journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia. 2022
BACKGROUND Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is a common inherited bleeding disorder. Patients with VWD suffering from severe bleeding may benefit from the use of secondary long-term prophylaxis. AIM: Systematically summarize the evidence on the clinical outcomes of secondary long-term prophylaxis in patients with VWD and severe recurrent bleedings. METHODS We searched Medline and EMBASE through October 2019 for relevant randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and comparative observational studies (OS) assessing the effects of secondary long-term prophylaxis in patients with VWD. We used Cochrane Risk of Bias (RoB) tool and the RoB for Non-Randomized Studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool to assess the quality of the included studies. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. RESULTS We included 12 studies. Evidence from one placebo controlled RCT suggested that VWD prophylaxis as compared to no prophylaxis reduced the rate of bleeding episodes (Rate ratio [RR], .24; 95% confidence interval [CI], .17-.35; low certainty evidence), and of epistaxis (RR, .38; 95%CI, .21-.67; moderate certainty evidence), and may increase serious adverse events RR 2.73 (95%CI .12-59.57; low certainty). Evidence from four before-and-after studies in which researchers reported comparative data suggested that VWD prophylaxis reduced the rate of bleeding (RR .34; 95%CI, .25-.46; very low certainty evidence). CONCLUSION VWD prophylaxis treatment seems to reduce the risk of spontaneous bleeding, epistaxis, and hospitalizations. More RCTs should be conducted to increase the certainty in these benefits.
Kawasaki Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Benefits and Harms of Common Treatments
ACR open rheumatology. 2021
OBJECTIVE Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited vasculitis affecting medium-sized vessels with a predilection for the coronary arteries. Although treatment reduces the likelihood of developing of coronary artery aneurysms, 5% of patients still develop aneurysms despite treatment, making KD the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in the United States. Consequently, there is a great deal of interest in optimizing treatment regimens, particularly for higher-risk patients, to decrease morbidity. The aim of this systematic review is to support the development of the American College of Rheumatology/Vasculitis Foundation for the diagnosis and management of KD, focusing on the more complex scenarios in which rheumatologists may become involved, such as high-risk and refractory disease. METHODS Eighty-nine articles were considered for full review in this systematic literature review to address 16 Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome questions related to KD. Data were abstracted in hierarchical fashion. Randomized control trials (RCTs) were considered first; if none were identified or if they contained insufficient information, comparative observational studies were then viewed, followed by single-arm observational studies/single arms from comparative studies. Only observational studies with more than 10 subjects with vasculitis were included. RESULTS Eight RCTs and 28 observational studies that addressed the questions were identified. Two questions were addressed by RCTs, seven questions had at least some comparative observational studies, three questions were only addressed by single-arm data, and four questions had no relevant studies. CONCLUSION This systematic review evaluates the benefits and harms of treatments for KD beyond first-line therapy.
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis and Microscopic Polyangiitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Benefits and Harms of Common Treatments
ACR open rheumatology. 2021
OBJECTIVE The aim of this systemic review is to compare different treatments for patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) to inform evidence-based recommendations for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/Vasculitis Foundation (VF) Vasculitis Management Guidelines. METHODS A systemic review was conducted by searching articles in English using OVID Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Articles were screened for suitability in addressing PICO questions, with studies presenting the highest level of evidence given preference. RESULTS A total of 729 full-text articles addressing GPA and MPA PICO questions were reviewed. For remission induction, rituximab was shown to be noninferior to cyclophosphamide (CYC) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.55, moderate certainty of evidence). The addition of plasma exchange to induction therapy in severe disease did not improve the composite end point of death or end stage renal disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86 [95% confidence interval CI: 0.65, 1.13], moderate certainty of evidence). In nonsevere disease, methotrexate was noninferior to CYC for induction of remission (remission at 6 months of 90% vs. 94%). For maintenance of remission, methotrexate and azathioprine showed no difference in the risk of relapse over a mean follow-up of 29 months (HR: 0.92, [95% CI: 0.52, 1.65]low certainty of evidence). As maintenance therapy, rituximab was superior to a tapering azathioprine strategy in major relapse-free survival at 28 months (HR: 6.61, [95% CI: 1.56, 27.96], moderate certainty of evidence). In two randomized trials, longer-term azathioprine maintenance therapy (>24 months) is associated with fewer relapses without an increase in adverse events. CONCLUSION This comprehensive systematic review synthesizes and evaluates the benefits and toxicities of different treatment options for GPA and MPA.