Audit and feedback to improve laboratory test and transfusion ordering in critical care: a systematic review
Implement Sci. 2020;15(1):46
BACKGROUND Laboratory tests and transfusions are sometimes ordered inappropriately, particularly in the critical care setting, which sees frequent use of both. Audit and Feedback (A&F) is a potentially useful intervention for modifying healthcare provider behaviors, but its application to the complex, team-based environment of critical care is not well understood. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on A&F interventions for improving test or transfusion ordering in the critical care setting. METHODS Five databases, two registries, and the bibliographies of relevant articles were searched. We included critical care studies that assessed the use of A&F targeting healthcare provider behaviors, alone or in combination with other interventions to improve test and transfusion ordering, as compared to historical practice, no intervention, or another healthcare behaviour change intervention. Studies were included only if they reported laboratory test or transfusion orders, or the appropriateness of orders, as outcomes. There were no restrictions based on study design, date of publication, or follow-up time. Intervention characteristics and absolute differences in outcomes were summarized. The quality of individual studies was assessed using a modified version of the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Cochrane Review Group's criteria. RESULTS We identified 16 studies, including 13 uncontrolled before-after studies, one randomized controlled trial, one controlled before-after study, and one controlled clinical trial (quasi-experimental). These studies described 17 interventions, mostly (88%) multifaceted interventions with an A&F component. Feedback was most often provided in a written format only (41%), more than once (53%), and most often only provided data aggregated to the group-level (41%). Most studies saw a change in the hypothesized direction, but not all studies provided statistical analyses to formally test improvement. Overall study quality was low, with studies often lacking a concurrent control group. CONCLUSIONS Our review summarizes characteristics of A&F interventions implemented in the critical care context, points to some mechanisms by which A&F might be made more effective in this setting, and provides an overview of how the appropriateness of orders was reported. Our findings suggest that A&F can be effective in the context of critical care; however, further research is required to characterize approaches that optimize the effectiveness in this setting alongside more rigorous evaluation methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO CRD42016051941.
Healthcare professionals ordering laboratory tests or blood transfusion components for patients in an intensive care unit (16 studies).
17 different Audit and Feedback (A&F) interventions to improve laboratory test and transfusion ordering.
Usual care (no intervention; historical or concurrent), or any other single or multifaceted behavioral intervention that did not involve A&F (e.g., education, incentives, reminders, or systems-based changes).
The included studies described 17 interventions, mostly (88%) multifaceted interventions with an A&F component. Feedback was most often provided in a written format only (41%), more than once (53%), and most often only provided data aggregated to the group-level (41%). Most studies saw a change in the hypothesized direction, but not all studies provided statistical analyses to formally test improvement. Overall study quality was low, with studies often lacking a concurrent control group.
Clinical outcomes of polyvalent immunoglobulin use in solid organ transplant recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part II: Non-kidney transplant
Clinical transplantation. 2019;:e13625
Immunoglobulin (IG) is commonly used to desensitize and treat antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The impact of IG on other outcomes such as infection, all-cause mortality, graft rejection, and graft loss is not clear. We conducted a similar systematic review and meta-analysis to our previously reported Part I excluding kidney transplant. A comprehensive literature review found 16 studies involving the following organ types: heart (6), lung (4), liver (4) and multiple organs (2). Meta-analysis could only be performed on mortality outcome in heart and lung studies due to inadequate data on other outcomes. There was a significant reduction in mortality (OR 0.34 [0.17-0.69]; 4 studies, n=455) in heart transplant with hypogammaglobulinemia receiving IVIG versus no IVIG. Mortality in lung transplant recipients with hypogammaglobulinemia receiving IVIG was comparable to those of no hypogammaglobulinemia (OR 1.05 [0.49, 2.26]; 2 studies, n=887). In summary, IVIG targeted prophylaxis may decrease mortality in heart transplant recipients as compared to those with hypogammaglobulinemia not receiving IVIG, or improve mortality to the equivalent level with those without hypogammaglobulinemia in lung transplant recipients, but there is a lack of data to support physicians in making decisions around using immunoglobulins in all SOT recipients for infection prophylaxis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Comparison of crystalloid resuscitation fluids for treatment of acute brain injury: a clinical and pre-clinical systematic review and network meta-analysis protocol
Systematic Reviews. 2018;7((1)):125.
BACKGROUND Current guidelines identify the choice of fluid resuscitation as important in minimizing the incidence of secondary brain injury from cerebral edema. It is widely accepted that isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids, specifically normal saline (NS), are optimal for resuscitation and that other relatively hypotonic fluids, such as Ringer's lactate (RL), should be avoided in this patient population. The aim of this review is to systematically compare the use of relatively hypotonic versus isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids in clinical and pre-clinical models of acute brain injury and their effect on outcomes. In recognition of the potential need for a network meta-analysis (NMA), we have also included all other relevant crystalloid resuscitation fluids as interventions of relevance to potentially inform indirect comparisons. METHODS Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science BIOSIS Previews(R) will be used to identify eligible clinical and pre-clinical studies, which included studies examining acute brain injury (human and in vivo animal brain injury models) within the first 7 days of therapy. The intervention of interest is the intravenous use of relatively hypotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids (e.g., Ringer's lactate, Hartmann's or Plasma Lyte(R) fluids). The main comparator of interest is an isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluid, specifically normal saline (0.9%). Other crystalloid resuscitation fluids (e.g., hypertonic saline (3-23.4%)) will also be included as an additional intervention of interest. The primary outcome measures of interest are intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). Secondary outcomes include the effect of resuscitation on cerebral edema, brain and serum osmolarity, and electrolyte concentrations and clinical outcomes including modified Rankin Scale (mRS), (extended) Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS/eGOS), and mortality. Separate meta-analyses will be conducted to quantify the effects of the different fluid resuscitation on acute brain injury outcomes in clinical and pre-clinical populations. Network meta-analyses to compare interventions will also be performed to compare the effects of different interventions. DISCUSSION This systematic review will comprehensively summarize the difference in treatment efficacy of various crystalloid resuscitation fluids in acute brain injury. This review is essential to underscore the evidence, or lack thereof, present in the literature to date to support current preference-driven practice and to direct future study. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO #CRD42016042960.
The efficacy and safety of topical tranexamic acid: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2018
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an effective hemostatic agent used for the reduction of blood loss and transfusion. However, the safety profile of TXA remains in question due to a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. By applying TXA topically as opposed to intravenously, systemic absorption may be reduced and unwanted side-effects mitigated. The objective of our review is to investigate the efficacy and safety of topically applied tranexamic acid compared to both placebo, and the intravenous administration. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched from inception to November, 2016. We included randomized controlled trials that compared topical tranexamic acid to either placebo (or standard care) or intravenous administration, in adult patients. Surgical and non-surgical trials were included. Abstract, full-text selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment were all performed in duplicate. In total, 67 studies involving 6,034 patients met inclusion criteria. The majority of trials evaluated orthopedic procedures. Compared to placebo, the administration of topical TXA significantly reduced the odds of receiving a blood transfusion (pooled OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.38; P < 0.001) and significantly reduced mean blood loss (WMD -276.6, 95% CI -327.8 to -225.4; P < 0.0001). When compared to the intravenous administration, there was no difference between the two groups in terms of transfusion requirements (pooled OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.46; P=0.88) or blood loss (WMD -21.95, 95% CI -66.61 to 27.71; P=0.34). There was no difference in the odds of developing a venous thromboembolic complication between the topical TXA and control groups (pooled OR=0.78, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.29; P=0.33) or the topical and intravenous groups (pooled OR=0.75, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.46; P=0.40). The topical application of TXA effectively reduces both transfusion risk and blood loss compared to placebo, without increasing thromboembolic risks. There were no major differences between topical and intravenous tranexamic acid with respect to safety and efficacy, and both were superior to placebo with regards to blood loss and transfusion requirements. Further study of the topical application is required outside of the field of orthopedics.
The safety and efficacy of lysine analogues in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Canadian Society of Transfusion Medicine. 2017;:39.. 89.
Risks of harms using antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery: systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised and observational studies
OBJECTIVE To estimate the relative risks of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal failure or dysfunction between antifibrinolytics and no treatment following the suspension of aprotinin from the market in 2008 for safety reasons and its recent reintroduction in Europe and Canada. DESIGN Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES A Cochrane review of antifibrinolytic treatments was chosen as the starting point for this systematic review. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane register of trials were searched with no date restrictions for observational evidence. STUDY SELECTION Propensity matched or adjusted observational studies with two or more of the interventions of interest (aprotinin, tranexamic acid, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, and no treatment) that were carried out in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DATA ANALYSIS Network meta-analysis was used to compare treatments, and odds ratios with 95% credible intervals were estimated. Meta-analyses were carried out for randomised controlled trials alone and for randomised controlled trials with observational studies. RESULTS 106 randomised controlled trials and 11 observational studies (43 270 patients) were included. Based on the results from analysis of randomised controlled trials, tranexamic acid was associated on average with a reduced risk of death compared with aprotinin (odds ratio 0.64, 95% credible interval 0.41 to 0.99). When observational data were incorporated, comparisons showed an increased risk of mortality with aprotinin on average relative to tranexamic acid (odds ratio 0.71, 95% credible interval 0.50 to 0.98) and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (0.60, 0.43 to 0.87), and an increased risk of renal failure or dysfunction on average relative to all comparators: odds ratio 0.66 (95% credible interval 0.45 to 0.88) compared with no treatment, 0.66 (0.48 to 0.91) versus tranexamic acid, and 0.65 (0.45 to 0.88) versus epsilon-aminocaproic acid. CONCLUSION Although meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials were largely inconclusive, inclusion of observational data suggest concerns remain about the safety of aprotinin. Tranexamic and epsilon-aminocaproic acid are effective alternatives that may be safer for patients.
Effect of fresh red blood cell transfusions on clinical outcomes in premature, very low-birth-weight infants: the ARIPI randomized trial
JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012;308((14):):1443-51.
CONTEXT Even though red blood cells (RBCs) are lifesaving in neonatal intensivecare, transfusing older RBCs may result in higher rates of organ dysfunction,nosocomial infection, and length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVE To determine if RBCs stored for 7 days or less compared with usual standards decreased rates ofmajor nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction in neonatal intensive care unitpatients requiring at least 1 RBC transfusion. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 377 premature infants with birthweights less than 1250 g admitted to 6 Canadian tertiary neonatal intensive careunits between May 2006 and June 2011. INTERVENTION Patients were randomlyassigned to receive transfusion of RBCs stored 7 days or less (n = 188) vsstandard-issue RBCs in accordance with standard blood bank practice (n = 189). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was a composite measure of majorneonatal morbidities, including necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy ofprematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and intraventricular hemorrhage, as wellas death. The primary outcome was measured within the entire period of neonatalintensive care unit stay up to 90 days after randomization. The rate ofnosocomial infection was a secondary outcome. RESULTS The mean age of transfusedblood was 5.1 (SD, 2.0) days in the fresh RBC group and 14.6 (SD, 8.3) days inthe standard group. Among neonates in the fresh RBC group, 99 (52.7%) had theprimary outcome compared with 100 (52.9%) in the standard RBC group (relativerisk, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.82-1.21). The rate of clinically suspected infection in thefresh RBC group was 77.7% (n = 146) compared with 77.2% (n = 146) in the standardRBC group (relative risk, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.12), and the rate of positivecultures was 67.5% (n = 127) in the fresh RBC group compared with 64.0% (n = 121)in the standard RBC group (relative risk, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.91-1.22). CONCLUSION In this trial, the use of fresh RBCs compared with standard blood bank practicedid not improve outcomes in premature, very low-birth-weight infants requiring atransfusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00326924;Current Controlled Trials Identifier: ISRCTN65939658.
The age of red blood cells in premature infants (ARIPI) randomized controlled trial: study design
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2009;23((1):):55-61.
Despite recent trends in decreasing transfusion thresholds and the development of technologies designed to avoid allogeneic exposure, allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions remain an important supportive and life-saving measure for neonatal intensive care patients experiencing illness and anemia. Reluctantly, a number of laboratory and observational studies have indicated that the amount of time RBCs are stored can affect oxygen delivery to tissues. Consequently, older RBCs may result in higher rates of organ dysfunction, nosocomial infection, and lengths of stay. Because of such harmful effects, an evaluation of the association between age of blood and nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction is warranted. The aim of the study was to determine if RBCs stored for 7 days or less (fresh RBCs) compared to current standard transfusion practice decreases major nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and requiring at least one RBC transfusion. This study is a double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial design. The trial will be an effectiveness study evaluating the effectiveness of stored vs fresh RBCs in neonates requiring transfusion. Neonatal patients requiring at least one unit of RBCs will be randomized to receive either (1) RBCs stored no longer than 7 days or (2) standard practice. The study was conducted in Canadian university-affiliated level III (tertiary) neonatal intensive care units. The primary outcome for this study will be a composite measure of major neonatal morbidities (necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and mortality). Secondary outcomes include individual items of the composite measure and nosocomial infection (bacteremia, septic shock, and pneumonia). The sample size calculations have been estimated based on the formula for 2 independent proportions using an alpha of . 05, a (1-beta) of . 80, and a 10% noncompliance factor. The baseline rate for our composite measure is estimated to be 65% as indicated by the literature. Assuming a 15% absolute risk reduction with the use of RBCs stored 7 days or less, our estimated total sample size required will be 450 (225 patients per treatment arm). The Age of Red Blood Cells in Premature Infants (ARIPI) trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials. gov) no. NCT00326924 and current controlled trials ISRCTN65939658.
Use of intravenous immunoglobulin for treatment of recurrent miscarriage: a systematic review
BJOG: an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2007;114((2):):134-42.
BACKGROUND Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a fractionated blood product whose off-label use for treating a variety of conditions, including spontaneous recurrent miscarriage, has continued to grow in recent years. Its high costs and short supply necessitate improved guidance on its appropriate applications. OBJECTIVE We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials evaluating IVIG for treatment of spontaneous recurrent miscarriage. SEARCH STRATEGY A systematic search strategy was applied to Medline (1966 to June 2005) and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (June 2005). SELECTION CRITERIA We included all randomised controlled trials comparing all dosages of IVIG to placebo or an active control. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two investigators independently extracted data using a standardised data collection form. Measures of effect were derived for each trial independently, and studies were pooled based on clinical and methodologic appropriateness. MAIN RESULTS We identified eight trials involving 442 women that evaluated IVIG therapy used to treat recurrent miscarriage. Overall, IVIG did not significantly increase the odds ratio (OR) of live birth when compared with placebo for treatment of recurrent miscarriage (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.78-2.10). There was, however, a significant increase in live births following IVIG use in women with secondary recurrent miscarriage (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.09-6.73), while those with primary miscarriage did not experience the same benefit (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.35-1.26). AUTHOR'S CONCLUSIONS IVIG increased the rates of live birth in secondary recurrent miscarriage, but there was insufficient evidence for its use in primary recurrent miscarriage.
Meta-analysis: intravenous immunoglobulin in critically ill adult patients with sepsis
Annals of Internal Medicine. 2007;146((3):):193-203.
BACKGROUND Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy has been proposed as an adjuvant treatment for sepsis. Yet, its benefit remains unclear, and its use is not currently recommended. PURPOSE To evaluate the effect of polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin therapy on death in critically ill adult patients with sepsis. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (1966 to May 2006) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (May 2006 edition). STUDY SELECTION All randomized, controlled trials of critically ill adult patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock who received polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin therapy or placebo or no intervention were selected. No restrictions were made for study language or type of publication. Data extraction: Data were independently extracted by 2 investigators using a standardized form. DATA SYNTHESIS The literature search identified 4096 articles, of which 33 were deemed to be potentially eligible. Twenty trials (n = 2621) met eligibility criteria and were included in the analysis. Polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was associated with an overall survival benefit (risk ratio, 0.74 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.89)) compared with placebo or no intervention. In sensitivity analyses, documented survival improved when the analysis was limited to published, peer-reviewed trials (risk ratio, 0.72 (CI, 0.58 to 0.89)) (17 trials (n = 1865)) and blinded trials (risk ratio, 0.61 (CI, 0.40 to 0.93) (7 trials (n = 896)). Severe sepsis or septic shock (risk ratio, 0.64 (CI, 0.52 to 0.79)) (11 trials (n = 689)), receiving a total dose regimen of 1 gram or more per kilogram of body weight (risk ratio, 0.61 (CI, 0.40 to 0.94)) (7 trials (n = 560)), and receiving therapy for longer than 2 days (risk ratio, 0.66 (CI, 0.53 to 0.82)) (17 trials (n = 1847)) were strongly associated with this survival benefit. LIMITATIONS Most trials were published before new developments modifying the care and outcome of critically ill patients with sepsis including early goal-directed therapy and activated protein C treatment, were introduced. CONCLUSIONS A survival benefit was observed for patients with sepsis who received polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with those who received placebo or no intervention. A large, randomized, controlled trial of polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin therapy should be performed on the basis of the methodological limitations of the current literature, the potential benefit from this therapy in more severely ill patients, and the potential effect of dosage and duration of this therapy.