Albumin replacement in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock
Caironi P, Tognoni G, Masson S, Fumagalli R, Pesenti A, Romero M, Fanizza C, Caspani L, Faenza S, Grasselli G, et al
New England Journal of Medicine. 2014;370((15):):1412-21.
BACKGROUND Although previous studies have suggested the potential advantages of albumin administration in patients with severe sepsis, its efficacy has not been fully established. METHODS In this multicenter, open-label trial, we randomly assigned 1818 patients with severe sepsis, in 100 intensive care units (ICUs), to receive either 20% albumin and crystalloid solution or crystalloid solution alone. In the albumin group, the target serum albumin concentration was 30 g per liter or more until discharge from the ICU or 28 days after randomization. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 28 days. Secondary outcomes were death from any cause at 90 days, the number of patients with organ dysfunction and the degree of dysfunction, and length of stay in the ICU and the hospital. RESULTS During the first 7 days, patients in the albumin group, as compared with those in the crystalloid group, had a higher mean arterial pressure (P=0.03) and lower net fluid balance (P<0.001). The total daily amount of administered fluid did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.10). At 28 days, 285 of 895 patients (31.8%) in the albumin group and 288 of 900 (32.0%) in the crystalloid group had died (relative risk in the albumin group, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.14; P=0.94). At 90 days, 365 of 888 patients (41.1%) in the albumin group and 389 of 893 (43.6%) in the crystalloid group had died (relative risk, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.05; P=0.29). No significant differences in other secondary outcomes were observed between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with severe sepsis, albumin replacement in addition to crystalloids, as compared with crystalloids alone, did not improve the rate of survival at 28 and 90 days. (Funded by the Italian Medicines Agency; ALBIOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00707122.).
Effects of recombinant human activated protein C on the fibrinolytic system of patients undergoing conventional or tight glycemic control
Polli F, Savioli M, Cugno M, Taccone P, Bellani G, Spanu P, Pesenti A, Iapichino G, Gattinoni L
Minerva Anestesiologica. 2009;75((7-8):):417-26.
AIM: Recombinant human activated protein C (rh-APC) and tight glycemic control (TGC) have been shown to reduce mortality in septic patients. Both interventions can reduce the plasma concentration and/or activity of the most powerful suppressor of fibrinolysis, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Our aim was to evaluate the effects on the fibrinolytic system after the administration of rh-APC in septic patients undergoing conventional or TGC. METHODS Posthoc analysis of data was collected from 90 patients with severe sepsis/septic shock, randomized to either conventional or TGC groups. Independent of these treatments, patients with at least two organ dysfunctions simultaneously received rh-APC. Plasma levels of multiple biochemical markers for fibrinolysis, coagulation, and inflammation were determined every day for the 1st week and then on study days 9, 11, 13, 18, 23, and 28. Clinical data and sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were also recorded. RESULTS Patients who had received rh-APC exhibited significantly more impairments in fibrinolysis at baseline (PAI-1 activity 49. 76 [24. 61-71. 82] vs 21. 92 [6. 47-55-83] IU/mL, P=0. 03). The reductions in plasma PAI-1 activity over time associated with rh-APC treatment were different according to whether the treatment was administered to patients undergoing conventional or TGC (P=0. 01). However, the most prominent reductions were in patients undergoing conventional glycemic control. Significant interactions between the two study interventions were also found for PAI-1 concentration (P<0. 001), C-reactive protein (P=0. 02), and interleukin-6 levels (P<0. 001). CONCLUSIONS Both rh-APC and TGC appear to improve fibrinolysis in septic patients. The reduction in the impairment of fibrinolysis associated with rh-APC treatment seems greater in patients undergoing conventional glycemic control than in those undergoing TGC.