Admission CT radiomic signatures outperform hematoma volume in predicting baseline clinical severity and functional outcome in the ATACH-2 trial intracerebral hemorrhage population
European journal of neurology. 2021
BACKGROUND Radiomics provides a framework for automated extraction of high-dimensional feature sets from medical images. We aimed to determine radiomics signature correlates of admission clinical severity and medium-term outcome from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) lesions on baseline head CTs. METHODS We used the ATACH-2 (Antihypertensive-Treatment-of-Acute-Cerebral-Hemorrhage-II) trial dataset. Patients included in this analysis (n=895) were randomly allocated to discovery (n=448) and independent validation (n=447) cohorts. We extracted 1130 radiomics features from hematoma lesions on baseline non-contrast head CTs and generated radiomics signatures associated with admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores. Spearman's correlation between radiomics signatures and corresponding target variables was compared with hematoma volume. RESULTS In the discovery cohort, radiomics signatures - compared to ICH volume - had significantly stronger association with admission GCS (0.47 vs 0.44, p=0.008), admission NIHSS (0.69 vs 0.57, p<0.001), and 3-month mRS scores (0.44 vs 0.32, p<0.001). Similarly, in independent validation, radiomics signatures - compared to ICH volume - had significantly stronger association with admission GCS (0.43 vs 0.41, p=0.02), NIHSS (0.64 vs 0.56, p<0.001), and 3-month mRS scores (0.43 vs 0.33, p<0.001). In multiple regression analysis adjusted for known predictors of ICH outcome, the radiomics signature was an independent predictor of 3-month mRS in both cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Limited by the enrollment criteria of the ATACH-2 trial, we showed that radiomics features quantifying hematoma texture, density and shape on baseline CT can provide imaging correlates for clinical presentation and medium-term outcome.
Spine Surgery and Preoperative Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, and Hemoglobin A1c: A Systematic Review
Global spine journal. 2021;:2192568220979821
STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. OBJECTIVES Synthesize previous studies evaluating clinical utility of preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c in patients undergoing common spinal procedures: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), posterior cervical fusion (PCF), posterior lumbar fusion (PLF), and lumbar decompression (LD). METHODS We queried PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for literature on preoperative Hb/Hct and HbA1c and post-operative outcomes in adult patients undergoing ACDF, PCF, PLF, or LD surgeries. RESULTS Total of 4,307 publications were assessed. Twenty-one articles met inclusion criteria. PCF AND ACDF Decreased preoperative Hb/Hct were significant predictors of increased postoperative morbidity, including return to operating room, pulmonary complications, transfusions, and increased length of stay (LOS). For increased HbA1c, there was significant increase in risk of postoperative infection and cost of hospital stay. PLF: Decreased Hb/Hct was reported to be associated with increased risk of postoperative cardiac events, blood transfusion, and increased LOS. Elevated HbA1c was associated with increased risk of infection as well as higher visual analogue scores (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores. LD: LOS and total episode of care cost were increased in patients with preoperative HbA1c elevation. CONCLUSION In adult patients undergoing spine surgery, preoperative Hb/Hct are clinically useful predictors for postoperative complications, transfusion rates, and LOS, and HbA1c is predictive for postoperative infection and functional outcomes. Using Hct values <35-38% and HbA1c >6.5%-6.9% for identifying patients at higher risk of postoperative complications is most supported by the literature. We recommend obtaining these labs as part of routine pre-operative risk stratification. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III.
Comparison of efficacy of packed red blood cell transfusion based on its hemoglobin content versus the standard transfusion practice in thalassemia major patients (HEMOCON study)
Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. 2020;:102736
The hemoglobin (Hb) content of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units is heterogenous. The efficacy of a transfusion episode can be assessed if the Hb content of the PRBC is known and the patient's post-transfusion Hb increment is also determined. This prospective study compared the efficacy of PRBC transfusion based on its Hb content versus the standard transfusion practice. A total of 160 thalassemia major patients were enrolled and randomly divided into two equal groups: Group I (n = 80) - they received ABO/RhD identical PRBCs after determining its Hb content (≥50 g); and Group II (n = 80) - they received randomly selected ABO/RhD identical PRBCs. Hb estimation and a direct antiglobulin test were performed on the post-transfusion sample (1 h). The mean Hb content of the PRBC units was significantly higher (p = 0.000) in group I (67.86 +/- 8.07 g; range: 50.80-92.13 g) than group II (60.92 +/- 8.29 g; range: 40.86-86.76 g). The mean Hb increment was also significantly higher in group I patients (p = 0.04). In both the groups, there was a significant negative correlation between Hb increment and weight, age, body surface area and blood volume (p < 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between Hb increment and Hb dose adjusted for body surface area as well as blood volume (p < 0.05). PRBC transfusion was more efficacious in patients who were transfused with PRBCs having a Hb content ≥50 g as compared to those who received randomly selected PRBCs.
Thalassemia major patients (n=160).
ABO/RhD identical packed red blood cell (PRBCs) after determining its Hb content (>/=50 g) group I, (n = 80).
Randomly selected ABO/RhD identical PRBCs group II ,(n = 80).
The mean Hb content of the PRBC units was significantly higher in group I (67.86 +/- 8.07 g; range: 50.80-92.13 g) than group II (60.92 +/- 8.29 g; range: 40.86-86.76 g). The mean Hb increment was also significantly higher in group I patients. In both the groups, there was a significant negative correlation between Hb increment and weight, age, body surface area and blood volume. There was a significant positive correlation between Hb increment and Hb dose adjusted for body surface area as well as blood volume. PRBC transfusion was more efficacious in patients who were transfused with PRBCs having a Hb content >/=50 g as compared to those who received randomly selected PRBCs.
Combining Platelet-Rich Plasma Instillation With Core Decompression Improves Functional Outcome and Delays Progression in Early-Stage Avascular Necrosis of Femoral Head: a 4.5- to 6-Year Prospective Randomized Comparative Study
J Arthroplasty. 2020
BACKGROUND Avascular necrosis of femoral head is a debilitating disease frequently progressing to femoral head collapse and joint destruction. The efficacy of core decompression (CD) remains controversial. METHODS About 40 consecutive age-matched and gender-matched patients (53 hips) were randomized into 2 groups by computer-generated algorithm table in a prospective randomized double-blinded comparative study. Group A (platelet-rich plasma [PRP] with CD) included 19 patients (25 hips), and group B (CD only) included 21 patients (28 hips). Postoperative Harris Hip Score and magnetic resonance imaging to quantify the necrotic area by using modified Kerboul angle were done and evaluated. Mean follow-up was 64.3 months (range, 54-72) and 63.7 months (range, 56-72) in groups A and B, respectively. RESULTS There was statistically significant difference between PRP and control groups in pain score (P = .00), functional score (P = .02), and Harris Hip Score (P = .00) at final follow-up. There was no progression in stage 1 disease. Stage 2 disease showed 24% progression in group A and 43% progression in group B. The difference was statistically significant (P = .025). Survivorship from femoral head collapse, any procedure, and total hip arthroplasty was 84%/68% (P = .00), 76%/57% (P = .02), and 92%/78% (P = .01) in 2 groups, which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION PRP use after CD provides significant pain relief, better midterm functional outcome, retards the progression, and enhances the survivorship free from reoperation for hip arthroplasty and femoral head collapse in early stages of avascular necrosis of hip than CD alone.
[Effectiveness of platelet rich plasma in pain management of osteoarthritis knee: Double blind, randomized comparative study]
Revista brasileira de anestesiologia. 2019
BACKGROUND Intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma to treat symptoms of knee osteoarthritis have been successfully used in young patients. However in most of these studies the control and test knees were present in different patients thus incorporating a large amount of bias in the results. Therefore, the present study was designed in which patients with bilateral osteoarthritis knee were included and platelet-rich plasma was administered in one knee and normal saline in another knee of same patient. METHODS 20 patients aged 30-65years with bilateral osteoarthritis knees (ASA class I and II) of either gender were included in the study. Patients were randomized to receive platelet-rich plasma and normal saline in one of the two knees. The primary outcome was VAS and WOMAC score at 6months after procedure. The secondary outcome included changes in joint stiffness, physical function, any adverse effects noted during the course of study. RESULTS The baseline VAS score in platelet-rich plasma knee was 8.4 +/- 0.88 which improved significantly to 4.85 +/- 2.48 (p < 0.001) at 6months as compared to normal saline knee (p = 0.017). The WOMAC pain score also improved from baseline (14.5 +/- 1.3) to over 6month 7.00 +/- 4.24 (p < 0.001) in platelet-rich plasma knee while in the normal saline knee, no significant change occurred from baseline to six months (10.2 +/- 1.2 to 10.05 +/- 1.23). There was also significant decrease in stiffness and improvement of physical activity in the platelet-rich plasma knee as compared to normal saline knee. CONCLUSION The present study showed significant decrease in pain and stiffness and improvement of physical functions of knee joint with intra-articular platelet-rich plasma injection as compared to normal saline.
Effect of alternative positions of neonates prior to delayed cord clamping on placental transfusion: A randomized control trial
The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine : the Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians. 2018;:1-141.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of alternative positions (relative to placenta) of normal term neonates, prior to the recommended delayed cord clamping, on placental transfusion and short-term neonatal outcome. METHODS Normal term neonates born vaginally were randomly assigned to be placed either on mother's abdomen (Group AL, n = 97) or 20 cm below the introitus (Group BL, n = 102) for 90 seconds after delivery. Subsequently the cord was clamped. Outcome measures were anthropometry, hematological profile including ferritin at birth and at 3-4 months; and adverse effects, polycythemia and jaundice. RESULTS Both groups had comparable outcome measures at birth. At 3-4 months, mean hemoglobin (AL: 12.0 +/- 0.9 g/dl, BL: 12.3 +/- 1.1 g/dl; p = 0.02, 95% CI 0.03-0.58) and hematocrit (AL: 36.1 +/- 2.7%, BL: 37 +/- 3.2%; p = 0.01, 95% CI 0.1-1.75) were significantly higher in BL group. Anthropometry, serum ferritin, incidence of anemia and iron deficiency at 3-4 months were similar in both groups. There was no significant difference in polycythemia, jaundice requiring phototherapy or respiratory distress between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Placing the baby below the placenta resulted in a statistically significant increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit at 3-4 months without any adverse outcomes. However, this meager quantum of increase did not translate into reduction of risk of anemia or improvement in iron stores. Registration number: CTRI/2013/06/003726.
Comparative evaluation of platelet rich fibrin and dehydrated amniotic membrane for the treatment of gingival recession - a clinical study
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : Jcdr. 2017;11((8)):ZC24-ZC28.
INTRODUCTION The main objective of any therapeutic intervention aimed at root coverage is to restore the tissue margin to the cemento-enamel junction and to regenerate the lost periodontium. AIM: To compare the effectiveness of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) and Amniotic Membrane (AM) in the treatment of gingival recession by Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) Technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty systemically healthy patients who met inclusion-exclusion criteria were selected. After Phase-I therapy, patients were randomly allocated to one of the groups; PRF (Group-A) and Amnion Group (Group-B). Clinical parameters like Plaque Index (PI), Recession Depth (RD) and Width of Keratinized Gingiva (WKG) were measured on the baseline day, three months and six months postoperatively. Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test were applied for intergroup and intragroup comparisons respectively. RESULTS Intergroup comparison between platelet rich fibrin and amniotic membrane showed statistically insignificant difference in the recession depth and width of keratinized gingiva at three and six months postoperatively. CONCLUSION Both the membranes were equally effective in terms of recession coverage and increase in width of keratinized gingiva.
Factors affecting the quality of cryoprecipitate
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science. 2017;11((1)):33-39.
BACKGROUND Many variables affect the quality of cryoprecipitate (CRYO). We investigated the effect of freezing techniques and ABO blood groups on the quality of CRYO with respect to factor VIII C and fibrinogen levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety-six whole blood units each collected from in-house (Group I) and blood donation camps outside the hospital premises (Group II) were processed for CRYO preparation. Within each group, half the number of plasma units was frozen using blast freezer and another half using the conventional freezer. The CRYOs from blood groups A, B, and O were equally distributed, i.e. 32 within each of the Groups I and II. The fibrinogen and factor VIII C levels in CRYO were analyzed using single-stage clotting assay. RESULTS In Group I, the mean +/- standard deviation percentage recovery of factor VIII levels in CRYO prepared using the conventional freezer and blast freezer were 58.5% +/-16.2% and 66.7% +/-16.4%, respectively, and in Group II, it was 55.3% +/-17.6% and 70.4% +/-13.4%, respectively. Recovery of factor VIII was higher in CRYO prepared using blast freezer than that of CRYO prepared using conventional freezer (P < 0.000). In Group II, CRYOs prepared using blast freezer had higher percent recovery of fibrinogen than that of Group I. In both the groups, the mean factor VIII levels in blood group A were higher than that of factor VIII levels in the blood group O CRYO. CONCLUSION The factor VIII recovery in CRYO improves significantly with higher baseline factor VIII C levels, blood group A donor, and rapid freezing using blast freezer. Rapid freezing also increases the fibrinogen yield.
Does the use of platelet-rich plasma at the time of surgery improve clinical outcomes in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair when compared with control cohorts? A systematic review of meta-analyses
PURPOSE The aims of the study were as follows: (1) to perform a systematic review of meta-analyses evaluating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) use at the time of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery and to determine its effect on retear rates and clinical outcomes; (2) to provide a framework for the analysis and interpretation of the best currently available evidence; and (3) to identify gaps within the literature where suggestions for continued investigational efforts would be valid. METHODS Literature searches were performed to identify meta-analyses examining arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs augmented with PRP versus control (no PRP). Clinical data were extracted and meta-analysis quality was assessed using the Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses and Oxman-Guyatt scales. RESULTS Seven meta-analyses met inclusion and exclusion criteria. All were considered as being of similar quality with Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses scores >15 and Oxman scores of 7. A total of 3,193 overlapping patients treated were included with mean follow-up from 12 to 31 months. When compared with control patients, use of PRP at the time of rotator cuff repair did not result in significantly lower overall retear rates or improved clinical outcome scores. The following postoperative functional scores comparing PRP versus control were reported: Constant (no significant difference demonstrated with PRP use in 5 of 6 reporting meta-analyses), University of California - Los Angeles (no difference, 6 of 6), American Shoulder and Elbow Society (no difference, 4 of 4), and Simple Shoulder Test (no difference, 3 of 5). Subgroup analysis performed by 3 meta-analyses showed evidence of improved outcomes with solid PRP matrix versus liquid, small- and/or medium-sized versus large and/or massive tears, PRP application at the tendon-bone interface versus over tendon, and in the setting of double-row versus single-row rotator cuff. CONCLUSIONS The current highest level of evidence suggests that PRP use at the time of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair does not universally improve retear rates or affect clinical outcome scores. However, the effects of PRP use on retear rates trend toward beneficial outcomes if evaluated in the context of the following specific variables: use of a solid PRP matrix; application of PRP at the tendon-bone interface; in double-row repairs; and with small- and/or medium-sized rotator cuff tears. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level III, systematic review of Level II and III studies.Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in cranio-maxillofacial and plastic surgery
The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2016;27((2)):374-379.
The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in other fields of elective surgery and its use is emerging in a number of plastic surgical subspecialties. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the current evidence for the efficacy and safety of TXA in craniomaxillofacial, head and neck, breast, aesthetic, burns, and reconstructive microsurgery. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized controlled trials of TXA in plastic surgery. Studies were analyzed using standard methodology. A total of 7965 records were screened, of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. Seven were suitable for meta-analysis. In craniofacial surgery, TXA was associated with a mean reduction in blood loss of 18.2 mL/kg (P = 0.00001) and a mean reduction in blood transfusion of 8.7 mL/kg (P = 0.0001). In orthognathic surgery, TXA was associated with a mean reduction in blood loss of 156 mL (P = 0.001). Tranexamic acid may also have a role in reducing drainage output volumes in oncological breast excision and lymph node dissection of the neck. Level-1 evidence for efficacy in aesthetic surgery, burns, and reconstructive microsurgery is lacking. Although no reported complications were attributable to TXA, there remain no phase IV trials published. Level-1 evidence supports the use of TXA in craniofacial and orthognathic surgery. There exists an unmet need for studies in areas, including burns, aesthetic surgery, and reconstructive microsurgery. Phase IV trials in areas of proven efficacy are also required.