Risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury
Respiratory care. 2021
Background: Until now, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) has been considered to be the leading cause of blood transfusion-related diseases and death. And there is no clinically effective treatment plan for TRALI. The aim of this study was to systematically summarize the literature on risk factors for TRALI in critical patients.Methods: Electronic searches (up to March 2020) were performed in the Cochrane Library, Web of Knowledge, Embase, and PubMed databases. We included studies reporting on the risk factors of TRALI for critical patients and extracted the risk factors. Finally, thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria.Results: We summarized and analyzed the potential risk factors of TRALI for critical patients in 13 existing studies. The host-related factors were age (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.08-1.24]), female sex (OR = 1.26 [1.16-1.38]), tobacco use status (OR = 3.82 [1.91-7.65]), chronic alcohol abuse (OR = 3.82 [2.97-26.83]), positive fluid balance (OR = 1.24 [1.08-1.42]), shock before transfusion (OR = 4.41 [2.38-8.20]), and ASA score of the recipients (OR = 2.72 [1.43-5.16]). The transfusion-related factors were the number of transfusions (OR = 1.40 [1.14-1.72]) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) units (OR = 1.21 [1.01-1.46]). The device-related factor was mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.13 [2.20-7.76]).Conclusions: The risk factors for TRALI in this study included Number of transfusions and FFP units were positively correlated with TRALI. Age, female sex, tobacco use, chronic alcohol abuse, positive fluid balance, shock before transfusion, ASA score and mechanical ventilation may be potential risk factors for TRALI. Our study suggests that host-related risk factors may play a more important role in the occurrence and development of TRALI than blood transfusion-related risk factors.
Critical care patients (13 studies).
Systematic review on the risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).
The host-related factors were age, female sex, tobacco use status, chronic alcohol abuse, positive fluid balance, shock before transfusion, and ASA score of the recipients. The transfusion-related factors were the number of transfusions and fresh frozen plasma units. The device-related factor was mechanical ventilation.
Effectiveness comparisons of drug therapies for postoperative aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: network meta‑analysis and systematic review
BMC neurology. 2021;21(1):294
OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of various drug interventions in improving the clinical outcome of postoperative patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and assist in determining the drugs of definite curative effect in improving clinical prognosis. METHODS Eligible Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were searched in databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (inception to Sep 2020). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score, Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) score or modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was used as the main outcome measurements to evaluate the efficacy of various drugs in improving the clinical outcomes of postoperative patients with aSAH. The network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted based on a random-effects model, dichotomous variables were determined by using odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI), and a surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was generated to estimate the ranking probability of comparative effectiveness among different drug therapies. RESULTS From the 493 of initial citation screening, forty-four RCTs (n = 10,626 participants) were eventually included in our analysis. Our NMA results showed that cilostazol (OR = 3.35,95%CI = 1.50,7.51) was the best intervention to improve the clinical outcome of patients (SUCRA = 87.29%, 95%CrI 0.07-0.46). Compared with the placebo group, only two drug interventions [nimodipine (OR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.01,2.57) and cilostazol (OR = 3.35, 95%CI 1.50, 7.51)] achieved significant statistical significance in improving the clinical outcome of patients. CONCLUSIONS Both nimodipine and cilostazol have exact curative effect to improve the outcome of postoperative patients with aSAH, and cilostazol may be the best drug to improve the outcome of patients after aSAH operation. Our study provides implications for future studies that, the combination of two or more drugs with relative safety and potential benefits (e.g., nimodipine and cilostazol) may improve the clinical outcome of patients more effectively.
Efficacy and safety of iron therapy in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis based on 15 randomised controlled trials
Postgraduate medical journal. 2020
Trials studying iron administration in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and iron deficiency (ID) have sprung up these years but the results remain inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy and safety of iron therapy in patients with CHF and ID. A literature search was conducted across PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID and Web of Science up to 31 July 2019 to search for randomised controlled trials (RCT) comparing iron therapy with placebo in CHF with ID, regardless of presence of anaemia. Published studies reporting data of any of the following outcomes were included: all-cause death, cardiovascular hospitalisation, adverse events, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, peak oxygen consumption, 6 min walking test (6MWT) distance and quality of life (QoL) parameters. 15 RCTs with a total of 1627 patients (911 in iron therapy and 716 in control) were included. Iron therapy was demonstrated to reduce the risk of cardiovascular hospitalisation (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.99, p=0.049), but was ineffective in reducing all-cause death (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.06, p=0.078) or cardiovascular death (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.63, p=0.540). Iron therapy resulted in a reduction in NYHA class (mean difference (MD) -0.73, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.47, p<0.001), an increase in LVEF (MD +4.35, 95% CI 0.69 to 8.00, p=0.020), 6MWT distance (MD +35.44, 95% CI 11.55 to 59.33, p=0.004) and an improvement in QoL: EQ-5D score (MD +4.07, 95% CI 0.84 to 7.31, p=0.014); Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire score (MD -19.47, 95% CI -23.36 to -15.59, p<0.001) and Patients Global Assessment (PGA) scale (MD 0.71, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.10, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in adverse events or serious adverse events between iron treatment group and control group. Iron therapy reduces cardiovascular hospitalisation in patients with CHF with ID, and additionally improves cardiac function, exercise capacity and QoL in patients with CHF with ID and anaemia, without an increase of adverse events.
Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and iron deficiency (ID), (15 studies, n= 1627).
Iron therapy (n= 911).
Placebo (n= 716).
Iron therapy reduced the risk of cardiovascular hospitalisation, but was ineffective in reducing all-cause death or cardiovascular death. There was no significant difference in adverse events or serious adverse events between iron treatment group and control group.
Tranexamic acid safely reduces hidden blood loss in patients undergoing intertrochanteric fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2020
PURPOSE To investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous tranexamic acid (IV-TXA) in patients undergoing intertrochanteric fracture surgery. METHODS A total of 122 patients were included in this double-blinded trial and equally randomized to receive 1 g of IV-TXA or normal saline 10 min before incision and 3 h later. The primary efficacy outcome was calculated hidden blood loss (HBL). The secondary efficacy outcome was allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion rate during hospitalization. Safety outcome was a composite of thromboembolic events including deep venous thrombosis (DVT) up to 90 days. A meta-analysis combining this study with previous randomized controlled trials in hip fracture surgery (total sample size: 1112 patients) was also conducted. RESULTS The mean HBL in TXA group (640.96 +/- 421.63 ml) was significantly lower than that in placebo group (1010.11 +/- 398.96 ml, P < 0.001). The rate of erythrocyte transfusions was 29.5% in TXA group and 60.7% in placebo group (P = 0.001). The incidence of thromboembolic events at 90 days was 4.9% in TXA group and 1.6% in placebo group (P = 0.619). The updated meta-analysis showed that IV-TXA significantly reduced erythrocyte transfusion in hip fracture surgery (risk ratio 0.60, 95% confidence intervals 0.53-0.68), and IV-TXA caused no increased risk of thromboembolic events (risk difference 0.01, 95% confidence intervals - 0.02-0.04). CONCLUSION IV-TXA could effectively reduce the HBL and allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion requirements in patients undergoing intertrochanteric fracture surgery without an increase of thromboembolic events including DVT. TRIAL REGISTRATION Clinical trials: safety and efficiency of tranexamic acid in hip fracture patients. Date of registration: August 31, 2018. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER ChiCTR1800018110.
Is intravenous tranexamic acid effective and safe during hip fracture surgery? An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery. 2019
INTRODUCTION The efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) tranexamic acid (TXA) during hip fracture surgery remain controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of IV-TXA administration during hip fracture surgery for reducing the transfusion requirement and blood loss as well as its safety regarding the risk of thrombolysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library Database were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that focused on the efficacy and safety of IV-TXA in patients during hip fracture surgery. The primary outcome was the transfusion requirement. Secondary outcomes included total blood loss (TBL), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and total thromboembolic events (TTEs). Risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), and mean difference (MD) for dichotomous and continuous data outcomes were determined from the meta-analysis. Data were analyzed using Rev Man 5.3. RESULTS Altogether, 11 RCTs were included (total sample size 892 patients). IV-TXA significantly reduced the transfusion requirement [RR 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.93, P = 0.02] and TBL (MD 326.64 ml, 95% CI - 462.23 to - 191.06, P < 0.00001) vs. cosntrol group. IV-TXA caused no increased risk of DVT (RD 0.02, 95% CI - 0.01 to 0.04, P = 0.13) or TTEs (RD 0.02, 95% CI - 0.01 to 0.05, P = 0.12). CONCLUSION Available evidence indicates that IV-TXA efficaciously reduces TBL and transfusion requirements during hip fracture surgery without significantly increasing the risk of TTEs including DVT.
Comparative effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine supporting Qi and enriching blood for cancer related anemia in patients not receiving chemoradiotherapy: a meta-analysis and systematic review
Drug design, development and therapy. 2019;13:221-230
A systematic review and meta-analysis of previous randomized controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) supporting Qi and enriching blood in the treatment of cancer related anemia (CRA) in patients not receiving chemoradiotherapy were conducted. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials were included. Compared with the control group, better improvement was found for the level of hemoglobin (mean difference=4.57, 95% CI [1.38, 7.76], P=0.005) and overall therapeutic effect (risk ratio [RR]=1.31, 95% CI [1.18, 1.46], P<0.000) in the TCM groups. The incidence of related adverse events was not increased in the TCM groups (RR=0.54, 95% CI [0.29, 0.99], P=0.05). However, due to the relatively low quality and the small sample sizes of the included studies, the results should be interpreted with a degree of caution. Nevertheless, TCM with the role of supporting Qi and enriching blood may be a safe and effective treatment for CRA in patients not receiving chemoradiotherapy and might be considered as an alternative treatment to conventional western medicine including iron supplements and erythropoietin.
Tranexamic acid decreases visible and hidden blood loss without affecting prethrombotic state molecular markers in transforaminal thoracic interbody fusion for treatment of thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation
STUDY DESIGN A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) administered during the surgical correction of thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation surgery is generally associated with substantial blood loss and a high risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). TXA has been shown to improve hemostasis in surgical procedures. METHODS We investigated 80 patients with thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation who underwent transforaminal thoracic interbody fusion (TTIF) between March 2014 and December 2016. The patients were randomized into the TXA (n = 39) and Placebo (n = 41) groups, according to whether they did or did not receive pre- and intraoperative TXA treatment. The two groups were compared for demographic characteristics as well as pre- and postoperative levels of prethrombosis-state molecular markers and visible and hidden blood loss volumes. Additionally, the prevalence of TXA-related complications was determined. RESULTS The two groups did not differ significantly in demographic characteristics. The visible blood loss (intra- and postoperative bleeding during the first 24 h), hidden blood loss, and true total blood loss during surgery in the TXA group were significantly lower than those in the Placebo group (835 +/- 180.3 mL, 351 +/- 82.3 mL, 1385 +/- 102.3 mL vs. 1155 +/- 175.3 mL, 564 +/- 170.5 mL, 1683 +/- 121.0 mL, respectively; P < 0.01). Furthermore, the levels of the prethrombosis-state molecular markers GMP-140, FIB, FDP, and D-dimer were higher in the TXA group than in the Placebo group, although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). No significant intergroup differences were noted in the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus during the study period. CONCLUSION TXA significantly reduced visible and hidden blood loss without affecting the prethrombosis-state molecular markers in TTIF or causing any notable adverse effects. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 3.
Clinical effect of gamma globulin pulse therapy for abdominal Henoch-Schonlein purpura in children
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi = Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics. 2016;18((10)):988-990.
OBJECTIVE To study the clinical effect of high-dose gamma globulin pulse therapy for abdominal Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). METHODS Thirty-three children with abdominal HSP were randomly assigned to dexamethasone group (15 children) and gamma globulin group (18 children). The children in the dexamethasone group were treated with dexamethasone and conventional treatment, and those in the gamma globulin group were treated with high-dose gamma globulin pulse therapy in addition to the conventional treatment. Clinical outcome and recurrence rate were observed in both groups. RESULTS Compared with the dexamethasone group, the gamma globulin group had a significantly shorter onset time of rash, a significantly shorter time to complete regression of rash, a significantly shorter time to abdominal pain remission, and a significantly shorter time to disappearance of bloody stool, as well as comparable time to vomiting remission and length of hospital stay. The gamma globulin group had a significantly higher response rate than the dexamethasone group (95% vs 65%; P<0.05) and a significantly lower recurrence rate within 6 months than the dexamethasone group (5.6% vs 33.3%; P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS High-dose gamma globulin pulse therapy has a marked clinical effect in the treatment of abdominal HSP. It is safe and reliable and has a low recurrence rate, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application.
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in the management of cancer patients with anemia: a meta-analysis
Chinese Journal of Cancer Research. 2014;26((3):):268-76.
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are widely used in the management of anemia in cancer patients. Despite their apparent effectiveness, recent studies have suggested that ESAs could result in serious adverse events and even higher mortality. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the benefits and risks of ESAs in the management of cancer patients with anemia using a meta-analysis. METHODS The initial literature search covered Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials, and identified 1,569 articles. The final meta-analysis included eight randomized controlled trials (n=2,387) in cancer patients with <11 g/dL hemoglobin (Hb) at the baseline and target Hb (for stopping ESA treatment) at no more than 13 g/dL. The assessment measures included Hb response, blood transfusion rate and adverse events that included venous thromboemblism (VTE), hypertension, and on-study mortality. The results are expressed as pooled odds ratio (OR). Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot analysis. RESULTS ESAs significantly increased the Hb concentration [OR 7.85, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.85 to 10.53, P<0.001] and reduced the red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rate (OR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.65, P<0.001). ESAs did not increase the accumulated adverse events (OR 0.95, P=0.82), or the on-study mortality (OR 1.09, P=0.47). CONCLUSIONS ESAs are not associated with increased frequency of severe adverse events in anemic cancer patients when the target Hb value is no more than 13 g/dL.