Recombinant activated factor VIIa for the treatment of bleeding in major abdominal surgery including vascular and urological surgery: a review and meta-analysis of published data
Critical Care. 2008;12((1):):R14.
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the role of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in abdominal, vascular, and urological surgery. METHODS We conducted meta-analyses of case series and placebo-controlled studies reporting on the treatment or prophylaxis of bleeding with rFVIIa regarding 'reduction or cessation of bleeding', 'mortality', and 'thromboembolism'. RESULTS All case reports (n = 15 case reports and 17 patients) documented an effect of rFVIIa in the treatment of bleeding. A meta-analysis of 10 case series revealed a reduction or cessation of bleeding in 39 out of 50 patients after administration of rFVIIa (estimated mean effect 73.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 51.0% to 95.4%) and a mean probability of survival of 53.0% (95% CI 26.4% to 79.7%). Among the rFVIIa responders, 19 out of 29 patients (66%) survived versus 1 out of 10 rFVIIa nonresponders (P = 0.003). Six out of 36 patients from the case series had a thromboembolic complication (estimated mean probability 16.5%, 95% CI 1.2% to 31.8%). Compared with a meta-analysis of eight placebo-controlled studies, no increased risk of thromboembolism was seen after administration of rFVIIa. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis of case series showed that, in a mean of 73% patients, rFVIIa achieved at least a reduction of bleeding and that the probability of survival is increased in patients responding to rFVIIa. rFVIIa was not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism compared with placebo.
Efficacy and safety of repeated perioperative doses of recombinant factor VIIa in liver transplantation
Liver Transplantation. 2005;11((8):):973-9.
Patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have excessive blood loss during surgery that requires blood transfusions, leading to increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. We studied the efficacy and safety of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) in reducing transfusion requirements in OLT. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial enrolled patients undergoing OLT because of cirrhosis (Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B or C). Patients received a repeated intravenous bolus regimen of rFVIIa 60 or 120 microg/kg or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the total number of red blood cell (RBC) units transfused during the perioperative period. A total of 182 patients were analyzed for efficacy and 183 for safety. No significant effect of rFVIIa was observed on the number of RBC units transfused or intraoperative blood loss compared with the placebo group. A significantly higher number of patients in the rFVIIa study groups avoided RBC transfusion. Administration of rFVIIa but not placebo restored the preoperative prolonged prothrombin time to normal value during surgery. Patients receiving rFVIIa and placebo did not experience a significant difference in rate of thromboembolic events. Additionally, there was no statistically significant effect of rFVIIa treatment on hospitalization rate, total surgery time, and the proportion of patients undergoing retransplantation. In conclusion, use of rFVIIa during OLT significantly reduced the number of patients requiring RBC transfusion. There was no increase in thromboembolic events with rFVIIa administration compared with placebo.
Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa in major liver resection: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial
BACKGROUND Prevention of bleeding episodes in noncirrhotic patients undergoing partial hepatectomy remains unsatisfactory in spite of improved surgical techniques. The authors conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to evaluate the hemostatic effect and safety of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in major partial hepatectomy. METHODS Two hundred four noncirrhotic patients were equally randomized to receive either 20 or 80 microg/kg rFVIIa or placebo. Partial hepatectomy was performed according to local practice at the participating centers. Patients were monitored for 7 days after surgery. Key efficacy parameters were perioperative erythrocyte requirements (using hematocrit as the transfusion trigger) and blood loss. Safety assessments included monitoring of coagulation-related parameters and Doppler examination of hepatic vessels and lower extremities. RESULTS The proportion of patients who required perioperative red blood cell transfusion (the primary endpoint) was 37% (23 of 63) in the placebo group, 41% (26 of 63) in the 20-microg/kg group, and 25% (15 of 59) in the 80-microg/kg dose group (logistic regression model; P = 0. 09). Mean erythrocyte requirements for patients receiving erythrocytes were 1,024 ml with placebo, 1,354 ml with 20 microg/kg rFVIIa, and 1,036 ml with 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (P = 0. 78). Mean intraoperative blood loss was 1,422 ml with placebo, 1,372 ml with 20 microg/kg rFVIIa, and 1,073 ml with 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (P = 0. 07). The reduction in hematocrit during surgery was smallest in the 80-microg/kg group, with a significant overall effect of treatment (P = 0. 04). CONCLUSIONS Recombinant factor VIIa dosing did not result in a statistically significant reduction in either the number of patients transfused or the volume of blood products administered. No safety issues were identified.