The Efficacy of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Improving Pain and Function for Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis with Risk-of-Bias Assessment
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2021
PURPOSE To assess the efficacy of PRP for lateral epicondylitis and evaluate its impact on pain and functional outcomes. METHODS This study followed Preferred Reporting Items and Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in September 2019 and repeated in April 2020 using electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Baseline, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month data were extracted for visual analog scale (VAS), disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH), and modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow (MAYO) scores. Only level 1 studies with patients who had not undergone surgery were included. Outcomes data, study design, demographic variables, PRP formulation, and comparator treatments were recorded. Statistical analyses of pooled weighted mean differences (WMD) were performed and compared to estimated minimal clinically important difference (MCID) values. The Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) was used to assess methodological quality and the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment was performed. RESULTS This review included sixteen level I studies, 9 (581 total patients, 281 receiving single injections of PRP) of which were quantitatively analyzed. Average age was 41.5 years, 56.8% of patients were female, and mean follow-up was 7.5 months. The mean CMS was 78.94 ± 12.74 (range 59-97) and 5 of 16 studies were at a low risk for bias. Patients who received PRP reported significantly improved VAS scores at 3 months (WMD: -0.85; 95% CI: -1.03, -0.66; p<0.01) and 6 months (WMD: -0.74; 95% CI: -0.98, -0.50; p<0.01) compared to those who received autologous whole blood, though MAYO scores were statistically equivalent. Comparing PRP to corticosteroids, VAS and DASH scores were not significantly different at 3 months, though PRP was superior at 6 months for VAS (WMD: -1.70; 95% CI: -2.65, -0.75; p<0.01) and DASH (WMD: -6.23; 95% CI: -10.78, -1.69; p<0.01). Most differences in VAS and DASH scores exceeded the 5% absolute difference estimate for their respective MCIDs but fell short of the 10% estimate. CONCLUSION Considering the small number of comparable studies, lack of quantification of specific PRP content, considerable heterogeneity between each RCT, and that most effect sizes were equivocal within the framework of two estimated MCID values, the authors can neither scientifically support nor discourage the usage of PRP for lateral epicondylitis despite finding statistically significant improvements in pain and functional outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I Prognostic.
Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Improvement of Pain and Function in Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis With Bias Assessment
The American journal of sports medicine. 2019;:363546519881423
BACKGROUND Many clinical trials have investigated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to treat rotator cuff-related abnormalities. Several meta-analyses have been published, but none have focused exclusively on level 1 randomized controlled trials. PURPOSE To assess the efficacy of PRP for rotator cuff-related abnormalities and evaluate how specific tendon involvement, the inclusion of leukocytes, and the use of gel/nongel formulations affect pain and functional outcomes. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS The literature was screened following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Baseline, short-term, and long-term data were extracted for the Constant score, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, retear rate, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. The 100-point modified Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) was used to assess methodological quality. Funnel plots and the Egger test were used to screen for publication bias, and sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of potential outliers. RESULTS A total of 18 level 1 studies were included in this review, 17 (1116 patients) of which could be included in quantitative analysis. The mean modified CMS was 79.4 +/- 10.39. The Constant scores of patients who received PRP were significantly better short term (weighted mean difference [WMD], 2.89 [95% CI, 0.89-4.90]; P < .01) and long term (WMD, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.13-4.19]; P < .01). The VAS scores were significantly improved short term (WMD, -0.45 [95% CI, -0.75 to -0.15]; P < .01). Sugaya grade IV and V retears in PRP-treated patients were significantly reduced long term (odds ratio [OR], 0.34 [95% CI, 0.20-0.57]; P < .01). In PRP-treated patients with multiple tendons torn, there were reduced odds of retears (OR, 0.28 [95% CI, 0.13-0.60]; P < .01). Patients who received leukocyte-rich PRP had significantly better Constant scores compared with the leukocyte-poor PRP group, but there was no difference in VAS scores. Patients receiving PRP gel reported higher Constant scores compared with the controls, whereas those receiving nongel PRP treatments did not, although there was no difference in VAS scores. Long-term odds of retears were decreased, regardless of leukocyte content (leukocyte-poor PRP: OR, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.16-0.82]; leukocyte-rich PRP: OR, 0.32 [95% CI, 0.16-0.65]; all P < .05) or usage of gel (nongel: OR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.23-0.76]; gel: OR, 0.17 [95% CI, 0.05-0.51]; all P < .01). CONCLUSION Long-term retear rates were significantly decreased in patients with rotator cuff-related abnormalities who received PRP. Significant improvements in PRP-treated patients were noted for multiple functional outcomes, but none reached their respective minimal clinically important differences. Overall, our results suggest that PRP may positively affect clinical outcomes, but limited data, study heterogeneity, and poor methodological quality hinder firm conclusions.
The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma on tendon and ligament healing: a systematic review and meta-analysis with bias assessment
The American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2017;:363546517743746.
BACKGROUND There has been a surge in high-level studies investigating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for tendon and ligament injuries. A number of meta-analyses have been published, but few studies have focused exclusively on tendon and ligament injuries. PURPOSE To perform a meta-analysis assessing the ability of PRP to reduce pain in patients with tendon and ligament injuries. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS This study followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. A comprehensive search of the literature was carried out in April 2017 using electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Only level 1 studies were included. Platelet and leukocyte count, injection volume, kit used, participant age/sex, comparator, and activating agent used were recorded. The short-term and long-term efficacy of PRP was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) to measure pain intensity. Injury subgroups (rotator cuff, tendinopathy, anterior cruciate ligament, and lateral epicondylitis) were evaluated. Funnel plots and the Egger test were used to screen for publication bias, and sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of potential outliers by removing studies one at a time. RESULTS Thirty-seven articles were included in this review, 21 (1031 participants) of which could be included in the quantitative analysis. The majority of studies published investigated rotator cuff injuries (38.1%) or lateral epicondylitis (38.1%). Seventeen studies (844 participants) reported short-term VAS data, and 14 studies (771 participants) reported long-term VAS data. Overall, long-term follow-up results showed significantly less pain in the PRP group compared with the control group (weighted mean difference [WMD], -0.84; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.44; P < .01). Patients treated with PRP for rotator cuff injuries (WMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.98 to -0.09; P = .02) and lateral epicondylitis (WMD, -1.39; 95% CI, -2.49 to -0.29; P = .01) reported significantly less pain in the long term. Substantial heterogeneity was reported at baseline ( I(2) = 72.0%; P < .01), short-term follow-up ( I(2) = 72.5%; P < .01), long-term follow-up ( I(2) = 76.1%; P < .01), and overall ( I(2) = 75.8%; P < .01). The funnel plot appeared to be asymmetric, with some missingness at the lower right portion of the plot suggesting possible publication bias. CONCLUSION This review shows that PRP may reduce pain associated with lateral epicondylitis and rotator cuff injuries.