Blood transfusion and ischaemic outcomes according to anemia and bleeding in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the TAO randomized clinical trial
Int J Cardiol. 2020
BACKGROUND The benefits and risks of blood transfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction who are anemic or who experience bleeding are debated. We sought to study the association between blood transfusion and ischemic outcomes according to haemoglobin nadir and bleeding status in patients with NST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). METHODS The TAO trial randomized patients with NSTEMI and coronary angiogram scheduled within 72h to heparin plus eptifibatide versus otamixaban. After exclusion of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, patients were categorized according to transfusion status considering transfusion as a time-varying covariate. The primary ischemic outcome was the composite of all-cause death or MI within 180 days of randomization. Subgroup analyses were performed according to pre-transfusion hemoglobin nadir and bleeding status. RESULTS 12,547 patients were enrolled. Among these, blood transfusion was used in 489 (3.9%) patients. Patients who received transfusion had a higher rate of death or MI (29.9% vs. 8.1%, p<0.01). This excess risk persisted after adjustment on GRACE score and nadir of hemoglobin (HR 3.36 95%CI 2.63-4.29 p<0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that blood transfusion was associated with a higher risk in patients without overt bleeding (adjusted HR 6.25 vs. 2.85; p-interaction 0.001) as well as in those with hemoglobin nadir > 9.0 g/dl (HR 4.01; p-interaction<0.0001). CONCLUSION In patients with NSTEMI, blood transfusion was associated with an overall increased risk of ischaemic events. However, this was mainly driven by patients without overt bleeding and those hemoglobin nadir > 9.0g/dl. This suggests possible harm of transfusion in those groups.
A single dose of erythropoietin in ST-elevation myocardial infarction
European Heart Journal. 2010;31((21):):2593-600.
AIMS: Cardioprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) have been shown in experimental and smaller clinical studies. We performed a prospective, multicentre, randomized trial to assess the effects of a single high dose of EPO after primary coronary intervention (PCI) for an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results Patients with a successful PCI for a first STEMI were randomized to receive either standard medical care alone, or in combination with a single bolus with 60,000 IU i. v. of epoetin alfa within 3 h after PCI. Primary endpoint was left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after 6 weeks, assessed by planar radionuclide ventriculography. Pre-specified secondary endpoints included enzymatic infarct size and major adverse cardiovascular events. A total of 529 patients were enrolled (EPO n = 263, control n = 266). At baseline (before EPO administration), groups were well-matched for all relevant characteristics. After a mean of 6. 5 (+/- 2. 0) weeks, LVEF was 0. 53 (+/- 0. 10) in the EPO group and 0. 52 (+/- 0. 11) in the control group (P = 0. 41). Median area under the curve (inter-quartile range) after 72 h for creatinine kinase was 50 136 (28 212-76 664)U/L per 72 h in the EPO group and 53 510 (33 973-90 486)U/L per 72 h in the control group (P = 0. 058). More major adverse cardiac events occurred in the control than in the EPO group (19 vs. 8; P = 0. 032). Conclusion A single high dose of EPO after a successful PCI for a STEMI did not improve LVEF after 6 weeks. However, the use of EPO was related to less major adverse cardiovascular events and a favourable clinical safety profile. Clinical Trial Registration Information: NCT00449488; http://www. clinicaltrials. gov/ct2/show/NCT00449488?term=voors&rank=2.