Polysaccharide hemostatic powder to prevent bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection in high risk patients: a randomized controlled trial
BACKGROUND : Bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a severe adverse event. Several methods to prevent post-ESD bleeding (PEB) have been introduced; however, they have not been widely used because of technical difficulties. We aimed to investigate whether polysaccharide hemostatic powder (PHP), which is very easy to apply, can prevent early post-ESD bleeding, especially in patients with a high risk of post-ESD bleeding. METHODS : This was a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial. Patients with a high risk for post-ESD bleeding were enrolled. Patients with gastric neoplasms in whom the resected specimen size was expected to be > 40 mm and those who were regularly taking antithrombotic agents were defined as high risk patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the PHP or control groups. RESULTS Between May 2017 and September 2018, 143 patients were enrolled (PHP group, 73; control group, 70). The total post-ESD bleeding rate was 6.3 % (PHP group, 5.5 % vs. control group, 7.1 %; P = 0.74). There was no bleeding within 7 days after ESD in the PHP group. Continued antithrombotic use was an independent risk factor for post-ESD bleeding. In subgroup analysis excluding the patients who continued to take antithrombotic agents (n = 129) during ESD, the rate of post-ESD bleeding tended to be lower in the PHP group than in the control group (0 % vs. 6.3 %; P = 0.06). CONCLUSION : PHP did not demonstrate a significant effect on the prevention of post-ESD bleeding in this study. Further larger scale, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this.
Optimal endoscopy timing in patients with acute variceal bleeding: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Scientific reports. 2020;10(1):4046
Although current guidelines recommend performing endoscopy within 12 hours for acute variceal bleeding (AVB), the optimal timing remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the effect of endoscopy timing on the mortality and rebleeding rates in AVB through a systematic review and meta-analysis of all eligible studies. PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched for relevant publications up to January 2019. Overall mortality, rebleeding rate, and other clinical outcomes were determined. For the non-randomized studies, the risk of bias assessment tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included publications. The Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model of the RevMan software (Cochrane) and the inverse variance method were used to analyse binary end points and continuous outcomes, respectively. This meta-analysis included five studies with 854 and 453 participants who underwent urgent (≤12 hours) and non-urgent endoscopies (>12 hours), respectively. All the included studies were retrospective in nature, because of obvious ethical issues. No significant differences in the severity indexes were found between the urgent and non-urgent groups. Three studies showed 6-week mortality and the others in-hospital mortality as main outcomes. No significant difference in overall mortality rate was found between the groups (odds ratio [OR]: 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-1.45, p = 0.36). The rebleeding rate was similar between the two groups (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.76-1.93, p = 0.41). Other outcomes such as successful haemostasis, need for salvage therapy, length of hospital stay, and number of blood transfusions were also similar between the groups. We demonstrated that endoscopy timing does not affect the mortality or rebleeding rate of patients with AVB. Therefore, an appropriate timing of endoscopy would be more important than an urgent endoscopy depending on each patient's condition.