Treatment of Fanconi Anemia-Associated Head and Neck Cancer: Opportunities to Improve Outcomes
Lee RH, Kang H, Yom SS, Smogorzewska A, Johnson DE, Grandis JR
Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 2021
Fanconi anemia, the most frequent genetic cause of bone marrow failure, is characterized by an extreme predilection towards multiple malignancies, including a greater than 500-fold incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) relative to the general population. Fanconi anemia-associated HNSCC and esophageal SCC (FA-HNSCC) often present at advanced stages with poor survival. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment for FA-HNSCC, and there is often great reluctance to administer systemic agents and/or radiation therapy (RT) to these patients given their susceptibility to DNA damage. The paucity of FA-HNSCC case reports limits evidence-based management, and such cases have not been analyzed collectively in detail. We present a systematic review of FA-HNSCC treatments reported from 1966 to 2020, defining a cohort of 119 FA-HNSCC patients including 16 esophageal SCCs (131 total primary tumors), who were treated with surgery, RT, systemic therapy (including cytotoxic agents, EGFR inhibitors, or immune checkpoint inhibitors), or a combination of modalities. We summarize the clinical responses and regimen-associated toxicities by treatment modality. The collective evidence suggests that when possible, surgical resection with curative intent should remain the primary treatment modality for FA-HNSCC. Radiation can be administered with acceptable toxicity in the majority of cases, including patients who have undergone stem cell transplantation (SCT). While there is little justification for cytotoxic chemotherapy, EGFR inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be both safe and effective. Immunotherapy may also be considered. Most oncologists have little personal experience with FA-HNSCC. This review is intended as a comprehensive resource for clinicians.
Does topical application of tranexamic acid reduce intraoperative bleeding in sinus surgery during general anesthesia?
Kang H, Hwang SH
Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology. 2019
INTRODUCTION Tranexamic acid is a hemostatic agent, which inhibits fibrin degradation, which may be beneficial in controlling bleeding during surgery. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to provide a meta-analysis and review of the effects of tranexamic acid on hemorrhage and surgical fields and side effects on patients during endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS Two authors independently searched six databases (Medline, SCOPUS, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane library) from the start of article collection until July 2018. Postoperative complications such as intraoperative bleeding, operative time, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, and coagulation profile were included in the analysis of tranexamic acid (Treatment Group) and placebo (Control Group) during the operation. RESULTS The amount of blood loss during surgery was statistically lower in the treatment group compared to the placebo group, and the surgical field quality was statistically higher in the treatment group than in the placebo group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in operation time, hemodynamics, or coagulation profile between groups. In addition, tranexamic acid had no significant effect on vomiting and thrombosis compared to the Control Group. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis has shown that topical administration of tranexamic acid can reduce the amount of bleeding during surgery and improve the overall quality of the surgery. Hemodynamic instability during surgery, vomiting after surgery, or abnormal clotting profile were not reported. Additional studies are needed to confirm the results of this study because there are fewer studies.
Efficacy of tranexamic acid on operative bleeding in endoscopic sinus surgery: A meta-analysis and systematic review
Kim DH, Kim S, Kang H, Jin HJ, Hwang SH
The Laryngoscope. 2018
OBJECTIVES Tranexamic acid might help control bleeding during surgery because of antifibrinolytic characteristics. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of systemic tranexamic acid compared to control in blood loss, operative time, and surgical field and incidence of postoperative emesis and thromboembolism in endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS Two authors independently searched six databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane database) from their inception to July 2018. The included studies compared perioperative tranexamic acid administration (treatment group) with a placebo, and the outcomes of interest were intraoperative morbidities, including surgical time, operative bleeding, and hypotension; postoperative morbidities such as nausea and vomiting; and coagulation profiles. RESULTS Seven studies comprising 562 participants were reviewed in this study. Operative time (standardized mean difference (SMD) = -0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI)[-0.93, -0.29]) and intraoperative blood loss (SMD = -0.66; 95% CI [-0.86, -0.46]) were statistically lower in the treatment group than placebo group; and the quality of the surgical field (SMD = -0.80; 95% CI [-1.12; -0.48]) and surgeon satisfaction (SMD = 1.74; 95% CI [1.36; 2.13]) were statistically higher in the treatment group than the placebo group. By contrast, there were no significant differences in the hemodynamic (SMD = 0.08; 95% CI [-0.20; 0.37]) and coagulation profiles (SMD = -0.18; 95% CI [-0.42, 0.07]) of the two groups. Additionally, tranexamic acid had no significant effect on emetic or thrombotic events compared to placebo. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis showed that the systemic administration of tranexamic acid could decrease operative time and blood loss intraoperatively, increasing the satisfaction of surgeons. It did not provoke intraoperative hemodynamic instability, postoperative emetic events, or coagulation profile abnormality. Only a small number of studies were enrolled, so further trials are needed to confirm the results of this study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IA. Laryngoscope, 2018.
Fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
Liu C, Mao Z, Hu P, Hu X, Kang H, Hu J, Yang Z, Ma P, Zhou F
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 2018;14:1701-1709.
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different fluids on critically ill patients who need fluid resuscitation through a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA). Data sources: Electronic databases were searched up to March 2018 for randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of different fluids in critically ill patients. The primary outcome was mortality, and the secondary outcomes were the incident of acute kidney injury (AKI) and risk of receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT). A Bayesian NMA was conducted, and the quality of evidence contributing to each network estimate was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. Results: We deemed 49 trials eligible, including 40,910 participants. The quality of evidence was rated as moderate in most comparisons. There was no significant difference among resuscitation fluids in mortality. NMA at the 9-node level showed the most effective fluid was balanced crystalloid (BC) (80.79%, the ranking of resuscitation fluid based on cumulative probability plots and surface under the cumulative ranking curves [SUCRAs]). NMA at the 10-node level showed that the most effective fluid was Plasma-Lyte (77.52%). Results of sensitivity analyses in mortality did not reveal any significant changes in the findings for primary outcomes. High-molecular-weight hetastarch (H-HES) was associated with an increased incidence of AKI when compared with gelatin (odds ratio [OR], 0.43; 95% credibility interval [CrI], 0.19-0.94), low-molecular-weight hetastarch (L-HES; OR, 0.50; 95% CrI, 0.30-0.87), BC (OR, 0.55; 95% CrI, 0.34-0.88), and normal saline (OR, 0.56; 95% CrI, 0.34-0.93). Meanwhile, H-HES was also associated with an increased risk of receiving RRT when compared with BC (OR, 0.51; 95% CrI, 0.27-0.93) and normal saline (OR, 0.52; 95% CrI, 0.24-0.96). Conclusion: BCs, especially the Plasma-Lyte, are presumably the best choice for most critically ill patients who need fluid resuscitation. Meanwhile, the use of H-HES was associated with an increased incidence of AKI and risk of receiving RRT. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42017072728).