Tranexamic acid and reduction of blood transfusion in lower limb trauma surgery: a randomized controlled study
INTRODUCTION Post-operative blood loss in lower limb trauma fractures increases morbidity. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss and the consequent requirement of blood transfusion in the Indian population. METHODS This was a randomized controlled study of 100 patients with lower limb trauma. Fifty patients were given 1 g of TXA before surgery, and 50 patients were not given TXA. The requirement of blood transfusion, fall in Hb, the number of days admitted in the hospital after surgery were recorded, and evidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was monitored. RESULTS Baseline demographics between the groups were comparable. The required blood transfusion and fall in Hb in patients receiving intra-operative TXA were significantly lower than those not given TXA (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the length of hospital stay between the two groups (p = 0.6). There was no significant difference in the incidence of DVT in both groups. DISCUSSION TXA helps reduce the morbidity of trauma patients by reducing the requirement for blood transfusion. Its use is safe in lower limb trauma surgery and lowers the cost of therapy to the patient.
Comparison of Hematocrit Change in Preterm Neonates with Birth Weight Based Versus Formula Based Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion: A Randomized Control Trial
Indian journal of hematology & blood transfusion : an official journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion. 2021;:1-7
Conventionally the packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion volume given to neonates is 10 ml/kg to 20 ml/kg. The weight-based formulae underestimate the volume of PRBC required to achieve a target hematocrit (Hct) in preterm neonates. The study was done to compare the rise in Hct after transfusing PRBC volume calculated either based on body weight or using formula considering Hct of blood bag and Hct of preterm neonates. This prospective study included a total of 68 preterm neonates requiring transfusion for the first time having ≤ 34 weeks of gestational age. Neonates were randomized using block randomization, to receive 15 ml/kg of PRBC transfusion (group A) or transfusion based on the formula (group B). The primary outcome of interest was post-transfusion rise in hematocrit. The secondary outcome was the effect of transfusion on neonatal morbidities in terms of retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, and death. Baseline variables (birth weight, gestation age, APGAR score and score of neonatal acute physiology) pre-transfusion hemodynamics and hematocrit of the bag were comparable in both groups. The mean volume of PRBC in group A was 18.8 ± 4.9 ml, whereas in group B it was 29.6 ± 7.3 ml, p = 0.0001. Group B transfusions had a statistically significant change in 24 h post-transfusion hematocrit. Secondary outcomes were comparable in two groups. Post transfusion rise in Hct of the patient in group B was significant as compared to group A. The study needed huge sample size to establish a difference in the number of re-transfusions required across two groups. The trial was registered under the clinical trial registry of India (CTRI/2018/01/011,063). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12288-021-01420-1.
Acute normovolemic hemodilution in major orthopedic surgery
Journal of clinical orthopaedics and trauma. 2020;11(Suppl 5):S844-s848
BACKGROUND With increasing concerns regarding the newer emerging pathogens, alternatives to allogeneic blood transfusion are being explored and acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is one of them. METHODS A prospective study was conducted in patients aged 18-65 years with preoperative hemoglobin >12 g/dl undergoing total knee replacement or total hip replacement. Patients in whom hemodilution was performed were included in the ANH group whereas patients undergoing treatment as per the routine hospital protocol were included in the control group. RESULTS Preoperative hemoglobin was similar in both ANH and control groups (12.7 ± 0.7 vs 12.6 ± 0.6, p = 0.56). Allogeneic blood requirement was significantly less in the ANH group as compared to the control group (4 vs 15, p = 0.001). Postoperative complications were significantly lower in ANH group as compared to control group (7 vs 16, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS ANH can be an alternative approach to meet the need of safe blood especially in resource constrained countries, like India where risk of transfusion transmitted infections are still high and where there is high demand of blood and acute shortage of blood in hospitals.