International guidelines regarding the role of IVIG in the management of Rh- and ABO-mediated haemolytic disease of the newborn
Lieberman L, Lopriore E, Baker JM, Bercovitz RS, Christensen RD, Crighton G, Delaney M, Goel R, Hendrickson JE, Keir A, et al
British journal of haematology. 2022
Free full text
Haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can be associated with significant morbidity. Prompt treatment with intensive phototherapy (PT) and exchange transfusions (ETs) can dramatically improve outcomes. ET is invasive and associated with risks. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be an alternative therapy to prevent use of ET. An international panel of experts was convened to develop evidence-based recommendations regarding the effectiveness and safety of IVIG to reduce the need for ETs, improve neurocognitive outcomes, reduce bilirubin level, reduce the frequency of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and severity of anaemia, and/or reduce duration of hospitalization for neonates with Rh or ABO-mediated HDN. We used a systematic approach to search and review the literature and then develop recommendations from published data. These recommendations conclude that IVIG should not be routinely used to treat Rh or ABO antibody-mediated HDN. In situations where hyperbilirubinaemia is severe (and ET is imminent), or when ET is not readily available, the role of IVIG is unclear. High-quality studies are urgently needed to assess the optimal use of IVIG in patients with HDN.
What clinical practice strategies have been shown to decrease incidence rates of intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants?
Howes A, Hilditch C, Keir A
Journal of paediatrics and child health. 2019;55(10):1269-1278
AIM: To answer the clinical question 'In infants about to be delivered and admitted to neonatal units, what clinical practice strategies, compared to standard care, have been shown to decrease incidence rates of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)?' METHODS MEDLINE via Ovid (1943 to 5 January 2018), Embase via Ovid (1974 to 5 January 2018) and the Cochrane Library (5 January 2018) were searched for relevant articles. RESULTS A total of 478 articles, after the removal of duplicates, were found and screened by title and abstract. Forty full-text articles were subsequently reviewed, and 19 were included as relevant to the structured clinical question. An additional article was included based on expert advice. CONCLUSION There are various levels of research evidence for clinical practice strategies to decrease the incidence rates of IVH. Higher-quality evidence suggests that antenatal corticosteroids decrease the rates of IVH, and multiple evidence-based intervention bundles implemented in the neonatal unit are associated with decreased rates of IVH.
Infants at high risk of intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) due to prematurity (20 studies).
Clinical practice strategies to decrease (IVH) incidence rates, including: perinatal and delivery room practices, respiratory and cardiovascular management, and quality improvement strategies.
Higher-quality evidence suggested that antenatal corticosteroids decreased the rates of IVH, and multiple evidence-based intervention bundles implemented in the neonatal unit were associated with decreased rates of IVH.
Do feeding practices during transfusion influence the risk of developing necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants?
Hilditch C, Keir A
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2018;54((5)):582-584.
Our evidence-based review set out to answer the clinical question 'In a preterm infant (patient) with anaemia of prematurity, do feeding practices (intervention) during blood transfusion reduce the risk of developing transfusion-associated necrotising enterocolitis (outcome)'? We found limited evidence that withholding feeding during red blood cell transfusion in preterm infants may reduce the risk of development of transfusion-associated necrotising enterocolitis. As clinical equipoise seemingly exists, it seems reasonable for individual units to make their own decisions regarding whether to withhold or continue enteral feeds during red blood cell transfusion until further evidence is available. The UK-based Withholding Enteral Feeds Around Transfusion (WHEAT) trial, a nation-wide multi-centre 'opt-out' randomised controlled study, hopefully will definitively answer our clinical question. Further research in other areas of neonatal care, using this innovative study design, is needed and it is exciting to see such a study underway.
Adverse effects of red blood cell transfusions in neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Keir A, Pal S, Trivella M, Lieberman L, Callum J, Shehata N, Stanworth SJ
BACKGROUND Controversy exists regarding the contribution of blood transfusions to a range of adverse clinical outcomes in neonates. The aim of our systematic review was to identify the broader literature on harmful effects and associations potentially attributable to red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE was undertaken. Eligible studies included both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized studies examining the effects of small volume (10-20 mL/kg) RBC transfusions on neonates. Primary outcomes of interest were mortality, chronic lung disease, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, and intraventricular hemorrhage. Two independent authors conducted a review of abstracts and then of full-text article reviews as well as data extraction and quality assessments. RESULTS Sixty-one studies were eligible for inclusion, including 16 (26%) randomized studies. The majority of studies were nonrandomized (n = 45; 74%), which included 32 observational studies with and 13 studies without a comparator group. There was no evidence that rates of mortality differed between restrictive and liberal strategies for transfusion (eight RCTs: risk ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.672, heterogeneity = 0%) or for necrotizing enterocolitis (five RCTs: risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.91-2.33; heterogeneity = 0%). A liberal strategy also was not superior to restrictive transfusion practice in the pooled randomized studies for rates of retinopathy of prematurity, chronic lung disease, or intraventricular hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS Statistically significant differences in a range of harmful outcomes between neonates exposed to restrictive and liberal RBC transfusion practice were not found. However, the risks of bias identified in many studies and the lack of consistent reporting and definitions of events limits our conclusions.
Adverse effects of RBC transfusions in neonates: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Keir A, Pal S, Trivella M, Lieberman L, Callum J, Sheheta N, Stanworth S
Abstracts of the HAA 2015 Annual Scientific Meeting. 2015;:196-7.. Abstract No. 151.
Adverse effects of small-volume red blood cell transfusions in the neonatal population
Keir A, Pal S, Trivella M, Lieberman L, Callum J, Shehata N, Stanworth S
Systems Review. 2014;3((1):):92.
BACKGROUND Adverse transfusion reactions in the neonatal population are poorly understood and defined. The incidence and pattern of adverse effects due to red blood cell (RBC) transfusion are not well known, and there has been no systematic review of published adverse events. RBC transfusions continue to be linked to the development of morbidities unique to neonates, including chronic lung disease, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular haemorrhage and necrotising enterocolitis. Uncertainties about the exact nature of risks alongside benefits of RBC transfusion may contribute to evidence of widespread variation in neonatal RBC transfusion practice.Our review aims to describe clinical adverse effects attributed to small-volume (10-20 mL/kg) RBC transfusions and, where possible, their incidence rates in the neonatal population through the systematic identification of all relevant studies. METHODS A comprehensive search of the following bibliographic databases will be performed: MEDLINE (PubMed/OVID which includes the Cochrane Library) and EMBASE (OVID). The intervention of interest is small-volume (10-20 mL/kg) RBC transfusions in the neonatal population.We will undertake a narrative synthesis of the evidence. If clinical similarity and data quantity and quality permit, we will also carry out meta-analyses on the listed outcomes. DISCUSSION This systematic review will identify and synthesise the reported adverse effects and associations of RBC transfusions in the neonatal population. We believe that this systematic review is timely and will make a valuable contribution to highlight an existing research gap. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO, CRD42013005107http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp? ID=CRD42013005107.