Intra-articular Versus Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Primary Total Knee Replacement
Background Total knee replacement (TKR) is an artificial joint surgical procedure that replaces the damaged articular surfaces of the knee joint. Despite several studies on the efficacy of intra-articular and intravenous Tranexamic acid (TX) use in reducing blood loss following TKR, the route of TXA administration is still an ongoing topic of debate. Our study aimed to compare total knee replacement efficacy (hemoglobin level, hematocrit level, hospital stay, and complications) of intra-articular and intravenous tranexamic acid administration. Material and Methods A Prospective study was conducted at the Department of Orthopedics, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad. The study duration was six months (August 2020 to February 2021). A sample size of 60 patients was calculated using the WHO calculator. Patients were selected through non-probability consecutive sampling. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; Group A was given intraarticular TXA, while group B was given intra-venous TXA following total knee replacement. Patients were followed for 48 hours. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24. An Independent T-test was applied, and a P value≤0.05 was considered significant. Results A total of 60 patients were included in the study. There were 20 (33.3%) male and female 40 (66.7%). The mean age of patients was 64.4±10.8SD. Post-operative hemoglobin level in group A was 11.09±0.39SD, and in group B was 9.93±1.73SD (p=0.03). Postoperatively, the mean HCT level in group A was 30.53±4.26SD and group B 26.88±5.48SD (p=0.01). Conclusion Intra-articular administration of TXA is more effective than intravenous administration in controlling postoperative blood loss following total knee replacement.
Comparing novel versus conventional technique of platelet-rich plasma therapy in periorbital hyperpigmentation: A randomized prospective split-face study
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2021;20(10):3245-3252
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been found to be effective in treating periorbital hyperpigmentation (POH). PRP prepared by double-spin (DS) method and activated by calcium has been used conventionally. PRP can be prepared by single spin (SS) and activated at low temperature (novel method), but the evidence is limited. OBJECTIVE To compare the novel and conventional PRP in the treatment of periorbital hyperpigmentation. METHODS We selected 21 patients of POH and randomly divided the face into two halves. One-half of the face (group A) was treated with novel PRP (SS and low-temperature activation). The other half (group B) was treated with conventional PRP (DS and calcium activation). A total of 3 PRP injections were given at 4 weekly intervals. Patients were observed and assessed on 12(th) week by photography, dermoscopy, visual analog scale (VAS) score, and Dermatology life quality index (DLQI). Platelet counts and growth factors were assessed in PRP. RESULTS Mean platelet count in novel and conventional PRP was 7.41 ± 1.76 lacs and 8.17 ± 2.23 lacs (p = 0.348). Mean photographic and dermoscopic assessment at the end of the study in group A and group B was 52.33 ± 6.468 and 53.14 ± 6.99 (p = 0.151). Change in VAS in groups A and B was 3.85 ± 1.27 and 3.90 ± 1.04 (p = 0.895). Levels of various growth factors assessed by ELISA did not differ significantly. There was significant decline in DLQI. CONCLUSION The novel method is not inferior to conventional method of PRP in the treatment of periorbital hyperpigmentation.
Systematic review and meta-analysis: monopolar hemostatic forceps with soft coagulation in the treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020
Monopolar hemostatic forceps with soft coagulation (MHFSC) have been compared with hemoclips, heater probe, and argon plasma coagulation (APC) for the treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we compared MHFSC with other modalities in the treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding. We reviewed MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Scopus from inception to 7 January 2019 to identify studies comparing MHFSC with other modalities for peptic ulcer bleeding. The primary outcome of interest was achievement of initial hemostasis. Secondary outcomes were rebleeding, adverse events, procedure time, and length of hospital stay. Data were analyzed using a random effects model and summarized as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed by I statistic. We included five randomized controlled trials and one observational study comprising 693 patients with endoscopically confirmed actively bleeding ulcers (spurting or oozing) or nonbleeding visible vessel. MHFSC was superior to other modalities in achieving initial hemostasis (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.08-0.81; I = 67%) and prevention of rebleeding (OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.09-0.86; I = 46%). Rates of adverse events were similar between MHFSC and other modalities. Procedure times were shorter with MHFSC (mean difference -4.15 min; 95% CI -4.83 to -3.47; I= 59%). Length of hospital stay was also shorter with MHFSC. MHFSC appears to be more effective than other modalities for achievement of initial hemostasis and reduction of rebleeding among patients with peptic ulcer bleeding.
Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology. 2020;:1-8
BACKGROUND Studies evaluating the role of tranexamic acid in acute upper GI bleeding (UGIB) have reported conflicting results. In this systematic review, we have evaluated the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in UGIB. METHODS We searched several databases from inception to June 6, 2020 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared tranexamic acid and placebo in UGIB. Our outcomes of interest were mortality, rebleeding, all thromboembolic events, venous thromboembolic events, need for transfusion, endoscopic intervention and surgery. Pooled risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using fixed effect model. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework to assess the certainty of evidence. RESULTS We included 12 RCTs comprising 14,100 patients. We found no significant difference in mortality, pooled RR (95% CI) 0.87 (0.74-1.01), rebleeding, pooled RR (95% CI) 0.90 (0.79-1.02), need for surgery, pooled RR (95% CI) 0.86 (0.73-1.02), need for transfusion, pooled RR (95% CI) 1.00 (0.99-1.01) or thromboembolic events, RR (95% CI) 1.16 (0.87-1.56) between treatments. We found an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events with tranexamic acid, pooled RR (95% CI) 1.94 (1.23-3.05). Certainty of evidence based on the GRADE framework for the different outcomes ranged from low to very low. CONCLUSIONS Tranexamic acid does not improve outcomes in UGIB and may increase the risk of venous thromboembolic events.
Patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding bleeding (12 studies, n= 14,100).
Tranexamic acid (n= 7101).
Placebo (n= 6999).
No significant difference in mortality, rebleeding, need for surgery, need for transfusion, or thromboembolic events, between treatments was found. However, there was an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events with tranexamic acid.
Prophylactic hemoclips in prevention of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding for ≥ 1 cm colorectal polyps: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Endoscopy international open. 2020;8(9):E1102-e1110
Background and aim Studies evaluating the role of prophylactic hemoclips (HC) in prevention of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding (DPPB) have reported conflicting results. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the role of prophylactic HC placement in prevention of DPPB for polyps ≥ 1 cm in size. Methods We reviewed several databases to identify RCTs evaluating the role of HC in prevention of DPPB. The outcomes assessed included prevention of DPPB with polyps 1 to 1.9 cm, ≥ 2 cm, any polyp ≥ 1 cm, proximal colon polyps, distal colon polyps, and perforation. We analyzed data using a fixed effect model and reported summary pooled risk ratios (RR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). We assessed heterogeneity with the I (2) statistic. Results We included nine RCTs with 4550 patients. For polyps ≥ 2 cm, there was a statistically significantly lower risk of DPPB with use of HC; RR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.36, 0.86. There was also a statistically significantly lower risk for proximal colon polyps ≥ 2 cm; RR 0.41 (0.24, 0.70) but no significant difference for distal polyps; RR 1.23 (0.45, 3.32). There was also no significant difference in risk for polyps 1 to 1.9 cm; RR 1.07 (0.59, 1.97). There was no significant reduction in risk of perforation with HC use for any polyp size. Conclusions Prophylactic HC placement is effective in prevention of DPPB from proximal colon polyps ≥ 2 cm, but of no significant benefit for polyps 1 to 1.9 cm in size or for distal colon polyps ≥ 2 cm.
Vasopressin vs noradrenaline: Have we found the perfect recipe to improve outcome in septic shock?
Journal of Critical Care. 2018;49:99-104.
PURPOSE The metabolic and circulatory disturbances in patients with septic shock results in a high mortality rate. There is a lack of high-level evidence on the optimal approach. We present a meta-analysis elucidating the outcomes of regimes with only noradrenaline versus a combination of noradrenaline and vasopressin in managing septic shock. METHODS A literature search of studies comparing the use of noradrenaline and vasopressin in septic shock was conducted, using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The primary outcome evaluated was mortality rate. Subgroup analysis of secondary measures was also conducted using Review Manager 5.3 software. RESULTS Four RCTs of 1039 patients were included. There is good evidence supporting a comparable mortality rate (RR: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.08, p=.32, I(2)=0%), and moderate evidence supporting an equivalent length of ICU stay (MD: 0.14, 95% CI: -1.37, 1.65, p=.86, I(2)=46%) and occurrence of adverse events (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.70, p=.35, I(2)=13%) between the two cohorts. CONCLUSION The two regimes have equivalent outcomes, but vasopressin has a role in selected patients experiencing less severe septic shock beyond a 36-h period. Further work will make definitive clinical recommendations for optimal strategy of vasopressin or noradrenaline usage.
Evaluation of the relative efficacy of autologous platelet-rich fibrin membrane in combination with beta-tricalcium phosphate (Septodont- resorbable tissue replacement) alloplast versus beta-TCP alloplast alone in the treatment of grade II furcation defects
National journal of maxillofacial surgery. 2018;9((2):):196-204.
Introduction: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is considered as the second-generation platelet concentrate, contains combined properties of fibrin, platelets, leukocytes, growth factors, and cytokines that make it as healing biomaterial with incredible potential for hard tissue and soft tissue regeneration. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of PRF with beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) graft (R. T. R) and compare it with beta-TCP allograft alone in the treatment of mandibular Grade II furcation defects. Material and Methods: A total of 20 mandibular Grade II furcation defects sites were assigned in the study and treated with either beta-TCP alone (Group I) or beta-TCP with PRF membrane (Group II). The clinical parameters analyzed were probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival recession (GR), horizontal defect depth (HDD), and vertical defect depth (VDD), recorded baseline and at 6 months reentry. Results: At 6 months, both groups showed statistically significant results for all parameters from their baseline value, although intergroup changes were statistically insignificant. In Group I, gain in CAL was 2.80 +/- 1.40 and in Group II it was 3.00 +/- 1.44. Bone fill in Group I was VDD (3.50 +/- 2.12) and HDD (3.70 +/- 0.67), whereas Group II showed VDD (3.70 +/- 1.57) and HDD (4.0 +/- 0.88), respectively. PPD reduction was higher in Group I (3.50 +/- 2.27) than Group II (2.80 +/- 1.93). At reentry GR was established, Group I showed higher GR (0.70 +/- 0.67) and Group II (0.40 +/- 0.52). Conclusions: Significant improvement was found in both groups, but the combination of PRF with beta-TCP allograft led to more favorable improvement in the management of Grade II furcation defect except PPD.
Damage control resuscitation in patients with severe traumatic hemorrhage: a practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma
The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2017;82((3)):605-617.
BACKGROUND The resuscitation of severely injured bleeding patients has evolved into a multi-modal strategy termed damage control resuscitation (DCR). This guideline evaluates several aspects of DCR including the role of massive transfusion (MT) protocols, the optimal target ratio of plasma (PLAS) and platelets (PLT) to red blood cells (RBC) during DCR, and the role of recombinant activated factor VII (rVIIa) and tranexamic acid (TXA). METHODS Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, a subcommittee of the Practice Management Guidelines (PMG) Section of EAST conducted a systematic review using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Articles in English from1985 through 2015 were considered in evaluating four PICO questions relevant to DCR. RESULT A total of 37 studies were identified for analysis, of which 31 met criteria for quantitative meta-analysis. In these studies, mortality decreased with use of an MT/DCR protocol vs. no protocol (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.87, p = 0.006) and with a high ratio of PLASRBC and PLT:RBC (relatively more PLAS and PLT) vs. a low ratio (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.77, p < 0.0001; OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.71, p = 0.0003). Mortality and blood product use were no different with either rVIIa vs. no rVIIa or with TXA vs. no TXA. CONCLUSION DCR can significantly improve outcomes in severely injured bleeding patients. After a review of the best available evidence, we recommend the use of a MT/DCR protocol in hospitals that manage such patients and recommend that the protocol target a high ratio of PLAS and PLT to RBC. This is best achieved by transfusing equal amounts of RBC, PLAS, and PLT during the early, empiric phase of resuscitation. We cannot recommend for or against the use of rVIIa based on the available evidence. Finally, we conditionally recommend the in-hospital use of TXA early in the management of severely injured bleeding patients.