The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Healing Time in Patients Following Pilonidal Sinus Surgery: A Systematic Review
Khan QI, Baig H, Al Failakawi A, Majeed S, Khan M, Lucocq J
BACKGROUND Pilonidal disease (PD) is a debilitating condition characterised by the infection of subcutaneous tissue in the sacrococcygeal area. It is associated with a high risk of recurrence, pain, infection, and purulent discharge. The two main surgical methods of pilonidal sinus disease include excision with primary closure/flap repair or excision of the sinus with healing by secondary intent. Wounds left open to heal by secondary intent remain extremely common due to their association with reduced risk of recurrence, however, it is associated with prolonged healing times. This study aims to determine whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) reduces healing time in patients post pilonidal sinus surgery with healing by secondary intent compared to simple wound dressings. METHOD Six databases were searched from their date of origin to May 30, 2022 for randomised control trials using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Only four papers were selected for review as per the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study design (PICOS) criteria. Critical appraisal was carried out according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Methodology Checklist for Randomised Control Trials and was assessed for risk of bias according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions. The pooled effect size was calculated using the fixed-effect model. A homogeneity of pooled effect size for the studies was also found (Cochrane Q test, p-value = 0.97 I-square = 0.0%). RESULT Four studies (n = 336) were included in this review. Three of the four studies reported a statistically significant reduction in time taken in healing the wound. The mean difference between the intervention (PRP group) and the control group was 13.01 days, (95% CI 12.15-13.86 days, p < 0.00001). All of the included studies also reported a statistically significant reduction in time taken to return to work/activities of daily living in the treatment group compared to the control group (MD 9.68 days, 95% CI 9.16-10.21 days, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSION This study shows that PRP is effective in reducing healing time and is associated with a significantly shorter period taken to return to work/activities of daily living in patients post pilonidal sinus surgery, which was the primary and secondary outcome investigated in this systematic review, respectively. PRP should routinely be offered to patients undergoing excisional pilonidal sinus surgery for the aforementioned benefits.