Mortality Benefit From the Passive Leg Raise Maneuver in Guiding Resuscitation of Septic Shock Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
Journal of intensive care medicine. 2021;:8850666211019713
BACKGROUND Fluid therapy plays a major role in the management of critically ill patients. Yet assessment of intravascular volume in these patients is challenging. Different invasive and non-invasive methods have been used with variable results. The passive leg raise (PLR) maneuver has been recommended by international guidelines as a means to determine appropriate fluid resuscitation. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine if using this method of volume assessment has an impact on mortality outcome in patients with septic shock. METHODS This study is a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched available data in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases from inception until October 2020 for prospective, randomized, controlled trials that compared PLR-guided fluid resuscitation to standard care in adult patients with septic shock. Our primary outcome was mortality at the longest duration of follow-up. RESULTS We screened 1,425 article titles and abstracts. Of the 23 full-text articles reviewed, 5 studies with 462 patients met our eligibility criteria. Odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality at the longest reported time interval were calculated for each study. Using random effects modeling, the pooled OR (95% CI) for mortality with a PLR-guided resuscitation strategy was 0.82 (0.52 -1.30). The included studies were not blinded and they ranged from having low to high risk of bias using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. CONCLUSION Our analysis showed there was no statistically significant difference in mortality among septic shock patients treated with PLR-guided resuscitation vs. those with standard care.
The effectiveness of low-dose and high-dose tranexamic acid in posterior lumbar interbody fusion: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized study
European Spine Journal : Official Publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 2017;26((11):):2851-2857
PURPOSE Tranexamic acid is a proven drug used for reduction of intraoperative blood loss in spinal surgery. However, optimal dosing considering risk/benefits is not well established owing to the heterogeneity in patient selection and surgical procedures of previous studies. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of various tranexamic acid regimens in reducing perioperative blood loss in single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). METHODS Patients were randomly grouped into three different interventions: low-dose tranexamic acid (LD), high-dose tranexamic acid (HD), and placebo-controlled (PC) groups. The HD and LD groups received 10 and 5 mg/kg of bolus loading dose and 2 and 1 mg/kg of continuous infusion until 5 h after surgery, respectively. Data on patient demographics and preoperative and 24-h postoperative laboratory values were collected. Outcome parameters include intraoperative blood loss, 24-h postoperative blood loss, and blood loss during removal of the last drain. RESULTS Seventy-two patients (mean age 63.3 +/- 7.6 years) showed similar baseline characteristics. Intraoperatively, blood loss was reduced by the administration of tranexamic acid (P = 0.04), contributed predominantly by a difference between the LD and HD groups (123 mL; P < 0.01). The 24-h postoperative blood loss was reduced (P < 0.01), contributed predominantly by a difference between the PC and LD groups (144 mL; P = 0.02). During the removal of the last drain, statistical difference was found between the PC and HD groups (125 mL; P = 0.00). No complications or side effects from tranexamic acid use were noted. CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid administration for single-level PLIF was effective and safe in reducing perioperative blood loss in a dose-dependent manner. An HD regimen comprising 10 mg/kg of bolus loading dose and 2 mg/kg/h of continuous infusion is recommended. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level 1 study according to Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence.