Robotically applied hemostatic clamping for care-under-fire: harnessing bomb robots for hemorrhage control
Kirkpatrick AW, McKee IA, Knudsen B, Shelton R, LaPorta AJ, Wachs J, McKee JL
Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 2022;65(2):E242-e249
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BACKGROUND Early hemorrhage control after interpersonal violence is the most urgent requirement to preserve life and is now recognized as a responsibility of law enforcement. Although earlier entry of first responders is advocated, many shooting scenes remain unsafe for humans, necessitating first responses conducted by robots. Thus, robotic hemorrhage control warrants study as a care-under-fire treatment option. METHODS Two bomb disposal robots (Wolverine and Dragon Runner) were retrofitted with hemostatic wound clamps. The robots' ability to apply a wound clamp to a simulated extremity exsanguination while controlled by 4 experienced operators was tested. The operators were randomly assigned to perform 10 trials using 1 robot each. A third surveillance robot (Stair Climber) provided further visualization for the operators. We assessed the success rate of the application of the wound clamp to the simulated wound, the time to application of the wound clamp and the amount of fluid loss. We also assessed the operators' efforts to apply the wound clamp after an initial attempt was unsuccessful or after the wound clamp was dropped. RESULTS Remote robotic application of a wound clamp was demonstrated to be feasible, with complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications. This finding was consistent across all operators and both robots. There was no difference in the success rates with the 2 robots (p = 1.00). However, there were differences in fluid loss (p = 0.004) and application time (p < 0.001), with the larger (Wolverine) robot being faster and losing less fluid. CONCLUSION Law enforcement tactical robots were consistently able to provide partial to complete hemorrhage control in a simulated extremity exsanguination. Consideration should be given to using this approach in care-under-fire and care-behind-the-barricade scenarios as well as further developing the technology and doctrine for robotic hemorrhage control.
A randomized controlled pilot trial of video-modelling versus telementoring for improved hemorrhage control wound packing
Public safety bomb technicians (n= 4).
Application of wound clamps with the heavy-duty bomb disposal Wolverine robot (n= 2).
Application of wound clamps with the lightweight bomb disposal Dragon Runner robot (n= 2).
There was complete cessation of simulated bleeding in 60% of applications consistently across all technicians and both robots. There was no difference in success rates with the two robots. However, there were differences in fluid loss and application time, with the Wolverine robot being faster and losing less fluid.
Kirkpatrick AW, McKee JL, Tomlinson C, Donley N, Ball CG, Wachs J
American journal of surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Exsanguination is the most preventable cause of death. Paradigms such as STOP THE BLEED recognize increased responsibility among the less experienced with Wound Packing (WP) being a critical skill. As even trained providers may perform poorly, we compared Video-modelling (VM), a form of behavioural modelling involving video demonstration prior to intervention against remote telementoring (RTM) involving remote real-time expert-guidance. METHODS Search and Rescue (SAR-Techs), trained in WP were asked to pack a wound on a standardized simulator randomized to RMT, VM, or control. RESULTS 24 SAR-Techs (median age 37, median 16.5 years experience) participated. Controls were consistently faster than RTM (p = 0.005) and VM (p = 0.000), with no difference between RTM and VM. However, 50% (n = 4) Controls failed to pack properly, compared to 100% success in both VM and RTM, despite all SAR-Techs feeling the task was "easy". DISCUSSION Performance of a life-saving technique was improved through either VM or RTM, suggesting that both techniques are beneficial and complementary to each other. Further work should be extended to law enforcement/lay public to examine logistical challenges.
Perforated and bleeding peptic ulcer: WSES guidelines
Tarasconi A, Coccolini F, Biffl WL, Tomasoni M, Ansaloni L, Picetti E, Molfino S, Shelat V, Cimbanassi S, Weber DG, et al
World journal of emergency surgery : WJES. 2020;15:3
Background: Peptic ulcer disease is common with a lifetime prevalence in the general population of 5-10% and an incidence of 0.1-0.3% per year. Despite a sharp reduction in incidence and rates of hospital admission and mortality over the past 30 years, complications are still encountered in 10-20% of these patients. Peptic ulcer disease remains a significant healthcare problem, which can consume considerable financial resources. Management may involve various subspecialties including surgeons, gastroenterologists, and radiologists. Successful management of patients with complicated peptic ulcer (CPU) involves prompt recognition, resuscitation when required, appropriate antibiotic therapy, and timely surgical/radiological treatment. Methods: The present guidelines have been developed according to the GRADE methodology. To create these guidelines, a panel of experts was designed and charged by the board of the WSES to perform a systematic review of the available literature and to provide evidence-based statements with immediate practical application. All the statements were presented and discussed during the 5th WSES Congress, and for each statement, a consensus among the WSES panel of experts was reached. Conclusions: The population considered in these guidelines is adult patients with suspected complicated peptic ulcer disease. These guidelines present evidence-based international consensus statements on the management of complicated peptic ulcer from a collaboration of a panel of experts and are intended to improve the knowledge and the awareness of physicians around the world on this specific topic. We divided our work into the two main topics, bleeding and perforated peptic ulcer, and structured it into six main topics that cover the entire management process of patients with complicated peptic ulcer, from diagnosis at ED arrival to post-discharge antimicrobial therapy, to provide an up-to-date, easy-to-use tool that can help physicians and surgeons during the decision-making process.
Polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock in critically ill adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis*
Laupland KB, Kirkpatrick AW, Delaney A
Critical Care Medicine. 2007;35((12):):2686-2692.
OBJECTIVES To systematically review the literature to assess whether adjunctive therapy with polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin (ivIg) reduces mortality among critically ill adults with severe sepsis and septic shock. DATA SOURCE MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases; the meta-register of controlled trials; and the medical editors trial amnesty register. STUDY SELECTION Prospective randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating ivIg treatment in critically ill adults with severe sepsis or septic shock were included. Two reviewers conducted assessment of suitability for inclusion. DATA EXTRACTION Two authors independently determined the validity of included studies and extracted data. DATA SYNTHESIS The effect of ivIg on all-cause mortality was quantified using a fixed-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS Fourteen RCTs published between 1988 and 2006 were included. Most were small, used relatively low doses of ivIg, and included predominantly surgical patients with Gram-negative infections. There was a significant reduction in mortality associated with use of ivIg treatment with a pooled odds ratio of 0.66 (95% confidence interval 0.53-0.83; p < .0005). In general, a greater treatment effect was seen among studies of lower methodological quality, studies using higher doses of ivIg, and studies that did not use albumin as a control. There was evidence of between-study heterogeneity (chi-square p = .009), and this was at least moderate as measured by the I value (I = 53.8%). When only high- quality studies were pooled, the odds ratio for mortality was 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.71-1.3; p = .78). CONCLUSIONS This meta- analysis demonstrates an overall reduction in mortality with the use of ivIg for the adjunctive treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock in adults, although significant heterogeneity exists among the included trials and this result was not confirmed when only high- quality studies were analyzed. These data warrant a well-designed, adequately powered, and transparently reported clinical trial.