Caplacizumab prevents refractoriness and mortality in acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: integrated analysis
Blood advances. 2021;5(8):2137-2141
The efficacy and safety of caplacizumab in individuals with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) have been established in the phase 2 TITAN and phase 3 HERCULES trials. Integrated analysis of data from both trials was conducted to increase statistical power for assessing treatment differences in efficacy and safety outcomes. Caplacizumab was associated with a significant reduction in the number of deaths (0 vs 4; P < .05) and a significantly lower incidence of refractory TTP (0 vs 8; P < .05) vs placebo during the treatment period. Consistent with the individual trials, treatment with caplacizumab resulted in a faster time to platelet count response (hazard ratio, 1.65; P < .001), a 72.6% reduction in the proportion of patients with the composite end point of TTP-related death, TTP exacerbation, or occurrence of at least 1 treatment-emergent major thromboembolic event during the treatment period (13.0% vs 47.3%; P < .001), and a 33.3% reduction in the median number of therapeutic plasma exchange days (5.0 vs 7.5 days) vs placebo. No new safety signals were identified; mild mucocutaneous bleeding was the main safety finding. This integrated analysis provided new evidence that caplacizumab prevents mortality and refractory disease in acquired TTP and strengthened individual trial findings, with a confirmed favorable safety and tolerability profile. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01151423 and #NCT02553317.
Efficacy and safety of open-label caplacizumab in patients with exacerbations of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in the HERCULES study
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2019
BACKGROUND Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (aTTP) is a rare, life-threatening autoimmune thrombotic microangiopathy. Caplacizumab, an anti-von Willebrand Factor Nanobody((R)) , is effective for treating aTTP episodes and is well tolerated. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS In the phase 3 HERCULES trial (NCT02553317), patients with aTTP received double-blind caplacizumab or placebo during daily therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and for ≥30 days thereafter. Patients who experienced an exacerbation while on blinded study drug treatment switched to receive open-label caplacizumab plus re-initiation of daily TPE. Exacerbations were defined as recurrence of disease occurring within 30 days after cessation of daily TPE. RESULTS Thirty-one patients (placebo, n = 28; caplacizumab, n = 3) had an exacerbation during double-blind treatment. Twenty-eight patients switched to open-label caplacizumab (placebo, n = 26; caplacizumab, n = 2); the three others discontinued upon exacerbation. Median time to platelet count response (≥150 x 10(9) /L) was 3.49 days upon receiving caplacizumab. There were no deaths. During open-label treatment, further exacerbation or a major thromboembolic event (vena cava thrombosis) was experienced by one patient (3.6%) each. Consistent with the double-blind phase, the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were catheter site hemorrhage (28.6%), headache (21.4%), and epistaxis (17.9%). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that caplacizumab was efficacious and well tolerated in patients with aTTP who experienced a disease exacerbation during double-blind treatment in HERCULES.