The mid-term and long-term effects of tourniquet use in total knee arthroplasty: systematic review
Journal of experimental orthopaedics. 2022;9(1):42
PURPOSE A tourniquet is routinely used during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to reduce intra-operative hemorrhage, though surgery without a tourniquet is becoming popular. To address concerns about the effect of blood at cement interfaces on long-term implant stability, we conducted a systematic review among patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty to determine if TKA with a tourniquet, compared to TKA without a tourniquet or with reduced tourniquet duration, is associated with better mid-term and long-term implant stability. METHODS A literature search was conducted without language restriction in PubMed, Cochrane database and Web of Science from conception to 17th March, 2021. Prospective cohorts, randomized and observational, that compared tourniquet use with a control group, followed patients for 3 months or more and reported outcomes concerning implant stability, limb function, pain and inflammation. Article selection, quality assessment according to the Revised Cochrane risk assessment scale and Newcastle Ottawa Scale, and data extraction were conducted in duplicate. PROSPERO CRD42020179020. RESULTS The search yielded 4868 articles, from which 16 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and four prospective cohort studies, evaluating outcomes of 1884 knees, were included. Eleven RCTs were evaluated to be low overall risk of bias, five RCTs had some concerns and four cohort studies were good quality. Few studies showed benefits of tourniquet use in mid-term implant stability (1/6), pain (1/11) and limb inflammation (1/5), and long-term implant stability (1/1). One study reported a significantly improved range of motion (1/14) while another reported significantly reduced quadriceps strength (1/6) in the tourniquet group. The remaining studies reported non-significant effect of tourniquet use. CONCLUSION Although few studies indicated benefits of tourniquet use in mid-term pain, limb inflammation, implant loosening and function, and long-term implant loosening, the majority of studies report no significant advantage of tourniquet use in total knee arthroplasty.
Prospective Comparison of Functional and Radiological Outcomes of Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction by Hamstring Graft Alone and Platelet-Rich Plasma Added to the Hamstring Graft
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To measure the additional effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on functional outcome of anterior cruciate ligament tear managed by augmenting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with PRP. METHODS The present study was conducted on patients with ACL tear admitted in the department of orthopaedics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow wherein a total of 70 subjects were assigned into two groups of 35 patients each randomly, viz Group 1 in which the patients were treated by quadruple hamstring graft alone and Group 2 in which the patients were treated with augmented hamstring graft with PRP. The standardized anterior drawer test, Lachman's test, Lysholm knee score were quantified both preoperatively and postoperatively at different follow-ups and also tibial tunnel widening was measured postoperatively at different follow-ups. RESULT The present study had 70 patients with ACL tears. The mean age of patients in non-PRP groups was 29.71 ±2.99 years while that in the PRP group was 28.34±4.32 years. On comparing the improvement in grades at pre-op, immediate postop, 6 weeks, and 3 months follow-ups, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. The tibial tunnel widening also showed no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION In our study, it was found that both the groups showed improvements in grades of anterior drawer test and Lachman's test postoperatively but the difference between both the groups was not significant. Similarly, while comparing the improvements in Lysholm knee score and tibial tunnel widening among both the groups, the difference was not significant. Follow up of 3 months was a limiting factor in our study. This technique needs further clinical evaluation to assess the long-term results.
Effect of preoperative finasteride on perioperative blood loss during transurethral resection of the prostate and on microvessel density in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: An open label randomized controlled trial
Urology annals. 2021;13(3):199-204
OBJECTIVE Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a common procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Previous studies on the effect of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors on perioperative blood loss in TURP and microvessel density (MVD) in the prostate are equivocal. We evaluated whether pretreatment with finasteride for 2 weeks before surgery can reduce perioperative blood loss in TURP and MVD in the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty-eight patients of BPH planned for TURP were randomized into two groups. The study group comprising 34 patients was treated with finasteride (5 mg/day) for 2 weeks and the placebo group comprising 34 patients received placebo for 2 weeks, before TURP. Blood loss was measured in terms of a reduction in the blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) levels between preoperative values and 24 h after surgery. MVD was measured in the resected prostate tissue stained with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS The reduction of Hb and HCT in the finasteride group was significantly lower than the reduction in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The artery (P = 0.005), vein (P = 0.05), and gland (P = 0.008) densities were significantly less in the finasteride group than in the placebo group. There was no significant correlation between blood loss and MVD. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests a clear advantage of the preoperative use of finasteride for 2 weeks by reducing the perioperative blood loss in TURP in patients with BPH. While there is a significant reduction in MVD in the prostate on treatment with finasteride, it is not clear that this is the mechanism of reduction in blood loss in TURP.
To Analyze the Role of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Hip Fracture surgeries in Orthopedic Trauma
International journal of applied & basic medical research. 2021;11(3):139-142
INTRODUCTION Hip fractures in orthopedic trauma cases are increasing. Majority of such patients undergoing surgery require blood transfusion of one or more units. Intravenous (I. V.) Tranexamic acid (TXA) may decrease loss of blood, decrease need of blood transfusion, and improve postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) along with lesser adverse effects. Risk of thromboembolic phenomena remains a concern. A study was done to analyze the role of I. V. TXA in hip fracture surgeries in trauma cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty patients were included in the study; in two groups (37 males and 23 females), Group A in which two doses of I. V. TXA 15 mg/kg were given and Group B in which two doses of I. V. placebo were given. RESULTS Total number of randomized hip arthroplasty cases was 22 (11 in Group A and 11 in Group B) whereas randomized osteosynthesis cases were 38 (19 in Group A and 19 in Group B). Mean preoperative Hb value in Group A was 10.8 gm% and in Group B was 10.7 gm% (P > 0.005. Mean postoperative Hb value in Group A was Hb 9.8 gm% and in Group B 9.5 gm% (difference of 3.061%). Mean duration of surgery in Group A was 64.2 min and in Group B was 66.3 min. Mean total blood loss (intraoperative and postoperative) in Group A was 384.6 ml and in Group B was 448.7 ml (14.29% less in Group A). A total of 14 patients in Group A (17 red blood cells [RBCs] units) and 17 patients (21 RBC units) in Group B required RBC transfusion. No major vascular event, severe bacterial infections, symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, limb ischemia, acute coronary syndrome, or immediate postoperative mortality was noted in either group. CONCLUSION I. V. TXA has the potential to decrease risk of blood transfusion, decrease total blood loss, and to maintain a higher postoperative Hb value with no significant adverse reactions. As the number of cases of hip fractures continues to increase along with increase in age, so the use of TXA in such cases may improve clinical outcomes, lessen number of inpatient days and hence decrease overall cost.
Clinical and radiographic evaluation of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft with concentrated growth factor versus concentrated growth factor alone in the treatment of intrabony defects
Medicine and pharmacy reports. 2021;94(2):220-228
BACKGROUND Periodontal disease is one of the major causes of alveolar bone loss. There are various ways of regenerating the lost bone, i.e. guided tissue regeneration, bone grafts, and growth factors. In this purview, it becomes immensely important for a clinician to decide the best modality of treatment. In this study, we compared the effect of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) in combination with concentrated growth factors (CGF) verses CGF alone. METHODS This double-blind, split-mouth study was conducted on ten patients with two comparable bilateral intrabony defects. Each pair of defects was randomly treated by DFDBA + CGF or CGF alone. Clinical parameters such as plaque index (PI), modified gingival index (MGI), pocket probing depth (PPD), and relative attachment level (RAL) were recorded at baseline, three months, and six months. In addition, radiograph with grids was also taken at baseline and six months. The paired t-test was used to compare the pre- and post-treatment values and the unpaired t-test was used to compare the test and control group. RESULTS The PI score decreased significantly from baseline to six months. Similarly, the mean MGI score decreased significantly from baseline to six months. The intragroup comparison showed that there was a significant reduction in PPD in both the test and control group. However, the intergroup comparison showed that the reduced pocket depth was not significant. The intragroup radiographic comparison showed that there was the significant formation of bone in both the test and control group but inter-group showed that the formation of bone among both the group were non-significant. CONCLUSION Radiographic and clinical outcomes of this study concluded that post six months, both groups demonstrated significant improvement in clinical and radiographic parameters. However, the addition of DFDBA to CGFs did not give any additional benefits.
A randomized comparative study of platelet-rich fibrin along with hydroxyapatite graft for the treatment of 3-walled defects in chronic periodontitis
Medicine and pharmacy reports. 2021;94(4):471-476
BACKGROUND Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) is a concentrate of leucocyte and platelets that contains various polypeptide growth factors. It has immense potential for use as a periodontal regenerative material in periodontal defects. Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) has long been used as bone grafting material. Recently it has been reported that when PRF is used in combination with HA, itgives a synergistic effect and results in a better periodontal regeneration. The present study aims to explore the clinical and radiographic effectiveness of autologous PRF versus PRF+HA in the regenerative treatment of intrabony defects (IBD) in patients with chronic periodontitis. METHODS Sixty patients with IBDs were divided into test and control groups. The test group patients were treated with autologous PRF, whereas the control group patients were treated with PRF+HA. Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, three months, six months and nine months' time interval. Radiographic measurements were recorded at baseline and nine months. RESULTS A reduction in PI, MGI, PPD, RAL, and IBD was observed in both the groups at nine months. Mean IBD reduction in the control group was 3.70 ± 1.16 mm, whereas, the mean reduction in the test group was 4.80 ± 1.03 mm, showing a significant reduction in IBDs. Similarly, the percentage of bone fill in the test group was 65% ± 3.67%, whereas bone fill in controls was 56.7% ± 3.56%, showing a significant bone fill in the study group. CONCLUSION Treatment of IBDs with PRF+HA showed a significant improvement in all the clinical and radiographic parameters. When HA was added to PRF, it increased the regenerative effect in the treatment of 3 wall IBDs.
Evaluation of efficacy of Valsalva for attenuating needle puncture pain in first time nonremunerated voluntary plateletpheresis donors: A prospective, randomized controlled trial
Asian journal of transfusion science. 2021;15(1):68-74
BACKGROUND Plateletpheresis is generally safe but may have adverse reactions. Adverse reactions can negatively influence donor recruitment and retention. Valsalva is a proven method of attenuating pain caused by venipuncture. AIMS The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the Valsalva maneuver on the attenuation of needle pain and donor anxiety. SETTINGS AND DESIGN This prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted between November 2015 and April 2016 at the Department of Transfusion Medicine. SUBJECTS AND METHODS One-hundred and sixty consecutive donors were grouped into control group (C) and Valsalva group (V) each of sample size 80. The Valsalva group performed a Valsalva maneuver and control did nothing before the venipuncture. Anxiety and pain were scored using a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). Severity was graded as VAS = 0 defines no pain and anxiety, VAS = 1-3 as mild pain and anxiety, VAS = 4-6 as moderate pain and anxiety, VAS = 7-9 as severe pain and anxiety, whereas VAS = 10 denotes extreme pain and anxiety. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 23 was used for analysis. Independent samples t-test/Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare between treatment and control group, whereas the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the difference between pre- and postobservations. RESULTS In the Valsalva group, post-Valsalva anxiety levels were significantly reduced to (1 [0-2]) from their pre-Valsalva values of (2 [0-3]); (P < 0.001). Pain was significantly lower (2[1-2]) in Valsalva group compared to control (4[2-5]); (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Valsalva reduced both severity of venipuncture pain and anxiety. Valsalva can be performed by donors as it is an easy, painless, and nonpharmacological method of pain and anxiety attenuation.
0.9% Saline v/s Ringer's Lactate for fl uid resuscitation in adult sepsis patients in emergency medical services: An open label Randomized Controlled trial
The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 2020;68(1):87
Does tranexamic acid improve intra-operative visualisation in endoscopic ear surgery? A double-blind, randomised, controlled trial
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2019;:1-5
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of tranexamic acid on intra-operative bleeding and surgical field visualisation. METHODS Fifty patients undergoing various endoscopic ear surgical procedures, including endoscopic tympanoplasty, endoscopic atticotomy or mastoidectomy, endoscopic ossiculoplasty, and endoscopic stapedotomy, were randomly assigned to: a study group that received tranexamic acid or a control group which received normal saline. The intra-operative bleeding and operative field visualisation was graded using the Das and Mitra endoscopic ear surgery bleeding and field visibility score, which was separately analysed for the external auditory canal and the middle ear. RESULTS The Das and Mitra score was better (p < 0.05) in the group that received tranexamic acid as a haemostat when working in the external auditory canal; with respect to the middle ear, no statistically significant difference was found between the two agents. Mean values for mean arterial pressure, heart rate and surgical time were comparable in both groups, with no statistically significant differences. CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid appears to be an effective haemostat in endoscopic ear surgery, thus improving surgical field visualisation, especially during manipulation of the external auditory canal soft tissues.
Comparison of plantar fasciitis injected with platelet-rich plasma vs corticosteroids
Foot & Ankle International. 2018;39((7):):780-786
BACKGROUND Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. This prospective study compared the efficacy of local injection of corticosteroids vs platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. METHODS Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 40 each (group A and group B). Patients were treated with local corticosteroid injection in group A and autologous PRP injection in group B. Clinical assessment was done prior to the injection and at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months following the injection, which included visual analog pain scale, subjective rating using the modified Roles and Maudsley score, functional outcome score by the Foot and Ankle Outcome Instrument (FAI) core scale, and the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot scale. Radiological assessment was done by measuring the thickness of the plantar fascia using ultrasonography. The mean age, sex, and body mass index of both groups were comparable. RESULTS Postinjection, there was significant improvement of visual analog score, modified Roles and Maudsley score, FAI core scale, AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score, and plantar fascia thickness in both the groups. However, with the numbers available, no significant difference in improvement could be detected between the above-mentioned variables in the 2 groups. CONCLUSION We found that the treatment of plantar fasciitis with steroid or PRP injection was equally effective. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level II, prospective randomized comparative series.