Cost per responder associated with romiplostim and rituximab treatment for adult primary immune thrombocytopenia in France . French
Transfusion Clinique et Biologique. 2014;21((2):):85-93.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This analysis compared the response rates and cost per responder associated with romiplostim and rituximab in adult immune thrombocytopenia from the French National Health System payer perspective. METHODS A decision analytic model was developed to estimate the cost per patient and per responder of treating adult immune thrombocytopenia patients with romiplostim versus rituximab over 6 months. A systematic literature review identified phase 3 randomized controlled trials. Published response rates were extracted (response definition: >50x10(9) platelets/liter). Resource utilization was based on French and international treatment guidelines, and clinical expert opinion. Unit costs were derived from literature and French reimbursement lists, and included the costs of routine physician visits, treatment administration, and emergency care. Non-responders incurred bleeding-related event costs. RESULTS The literature review identified a phase 3 randomized controlled trial for romiplostim with a response rate of 83%. Due to a lack of phase 3 randomized controlled trials for rituximab, a systematic review of studies was selected as the best source, reporting a response rate of 62.5%. Romiplostim and rituximab were associated with similar treatment costs, with an estimated cost per patient for romiplostim of 17,456 and 17,068 for rituximab. Rituximab resulted in a 30% higher cost per responder (27,308 for rituximab versus 21,031 for romiplostim). Romiplostim use reduced drug administration, intravenous immunoglobulin, and bleeding-related hospitalization costs compared to rituximab. CONCLUSIONS Due to its high efficacy leading to lower bleeding-related costs, romiplostim represents an efficient use of resources for adult immune thrombocytopenia patients in the French healthcare system. Copyright 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dose efficiency of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents for the treatment of patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia: a systematic review
Clinical Therapeutics. 2014;36((4):):594-610.
BACKGROUND Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) increase red blood cell production in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia (CIA). In Europe, short-acting ESAs (epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, epoetin zeta, and epoetin theta) and a long-acting ESA (darbepoetin alfa) are available to treat CIA. OBJECTIVE This systematic review aimed to determine potential dose efficiency associated with the use of different ESAs for the treatment of CIA according to European labeling. METHODS A systematic review of ESA studies with starting doses according to European labeling was conducted according to published methodology. Measures of dose efficiency were defined as mean weekly doses to achieve target hemoglobin level or final dose and dose adjustments (dose increase, decrease, or withheld). Electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched up to July 2012. Data were selected for analysis using an evidence hierarchy and quantitatively analyzed to assess statistical homogeneity. Where pooling of data was not appropriate, a narrative summary with descriptive statistics (medians and ranges) was reported. RESULTS Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-five studies considered to represent the highest level of evidence were extracted and included in the analysis. The analysis showed a high degree of statistical heterogeneity, often precluding meta-analysis. The patients included in the analysis were representative of those encountered in clinical practice, and patient characteristics were similar between the short-acting and the darbepoetin alfa groups. Mean weekly doses appeared ~30% lower with darbepoetin alfa versus short-acting ESAs (median, 136.5 mug or 27,300 IU [range, 21,560-38,260 IU] vs 38,230 IU [range, 31,634-42,714 IU], respectively), resulting in a mean weekly dose ratio of 1:280. Darbepoetin alfa patients appeared to need fewer dose increases compared with short-acting ESAs (pooled, 0.75%; I(2) = 21% vs median 26.6% [range, 7.6%-44.6%]) and more dose decreases (median, 74% [range, 57%-75%] vs 22% [range, 2.8%-59%]). A similar percentage of darbepoetin alfa and short-acting ESA patients required a dose to be withheld (20% and 33% [2 studies] vs median 33.2% [range, 12.6%-51.1%]). CONCLUSIONS Statistical heterogeneity between studies was high, although clinically the studies represented medical practice. Without randomized clinical trials directly comparing darbepoetin alfa and short-acting ESAs, these findings are tentative and future research is warranted. This review shows that good-quality, reliable data from head-to-head trials are lacking. The best available evidence comes from prospective ESA-arm data. Mean weekly doses, dose increases, and dose decreases suggest a dose efficiency for darbepoetin alfa compared with short-acting ESAs. Copyright 2014 The Authors. Published by EM Inc USA.. All rights reserved.
Hemoglobin level at initiation of darbepoetin alfa: impact on need for transfusion and associated costs in chemotherapy-induced anemia treatment in Europe
Supportive Care in Cancer. 2013;21((2):):485-93.
PURPOSE Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents can reduce red blood cell transfusion rates in patients developing anemia while receiving chemotherapy. We investigated potential cost savings from reduced transfusion rates in patients starting darbepoetin alfa (DA) at higher versus lower hemoglobin (Hb) levels. METHODS Two systematic literature reviews were performed: transfusion outcomes in patients receiving DA stratified by baseline Hb level and costs of transfusion in Europe. Potential cost savings were calculated by multiplying the difference in transfusion rates between Hb levels by the midpoint of transfusion costs. RESULTS Despite differences in baseline characteristics, treatment duration and analysis technique, the clinical studies (n=8) showed that fewer transfusions were required when DA was initiated at higher versus lower Hb levels. The economic studies (n=9) showed that 1unit of transfusion ranged from 130 to 537 (2010-adjusted values). Cost savings from initiating DA at higher versus lower Hb levels were 503-2,226 (2units transfused) and 880-3,895 (3.5units) per ten patients. CONCLUSIONS Transfusion incidence increases with DA initiation at lower Hb levels. Potential cost savings depend on the number of units transfused and cost items included. DA initiation according to guidelines can reduce transfusions and potentially reduce transfusion-associated costs. Journal Article.