A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Evaluating the Impact of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Aesthetic surgery journal. 2021
BACKGROUND Recent evidence suggests tranexamic acid (TXA) may improve outcomes in aesthetic surgery patients. OBJECTIVES This systematic review aimed to investigate the impact of TXA use in aesthetic plastic surgery on bleeding and aesthetic outcomes. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies evaluating TXA use in aesthetic plastic surgery. The primary outcome of interest was perioperative bleeding, reported as total blood loss (TBL), ecchymosis, and hematoma formation. Meta-analyses analyzing TBL, and postoperative hematoma were performed. RESULTS Of 287 identified articles, 14 studies evaluating TXA use in rhinoplasty (6), rhytidectomy (3), liposuction (3), reduction mammaplasty (1), and blepharoplasty (1) were included for analysis. Of 820 total patients, 446 (54.4%) received TXA. Meta-analysis demonstrated TXA is associated with 26.3mL average blood loss reduction (95% CI: -40.0mL to -12.7mL, p < 0.001) and suggested a trend toward decreased odds of postoperative hematoma with TXA use (OR: 0.280, 95% CI: 0.076 - 1.029, p = 0.055). Heterogeneity among reporting of other outcomes precluded meta-analysis; however, 5 of 7 studies found significantly decreased postoperative ecchymosis levels within 7 days of surgery, three studies found statistically significant reductions in postoperative drain output, and one study reported significantly improved surgical site quality for patients who received TXA (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS TXA is associated with decreased blood loss and a trend toward decreased hematoma formation in aesthetic plastic surgery. Its use has the potential to increase patient satisfaction with postoperative recovery and decrease costs associated with complications, including hematoma evacuation.