Recent Advancements in the Management of Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: A Systematic Review
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a rare multisystem autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels and is more commonly seen in the geriatric population. ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is typically characterized as necrotizing vasculitis and includes granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). The mortality rate remains high, with especially cardiovascular disease, infections, and malignancies being the leading causes of death. Existing treatment options depend heavily on the use of glucocorticoids (GCs), often in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYC); however, as the multitude of adverse effects associated with these agents has increased, numerous studies are being conducted to reduce not only these harmful effects but also improve remission rates. Rituximab, avacopan, corticosteroids, including intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, plasma exchange, and immunological targeting are among the emerging treatments. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the pathogenesis and traditional treatment modalities and give insights into the recent advances in managing this disorder in an attempt to spare the adverse effects of conventional therapies while achieving better remission rates with combination therapies as well. The authors explored multiple databases, employing appropriate keywords, satisfying the quality appraisal, after which a total of 14 reports were included in this review. Upon overall analysis, it can be concluded that rituximab and CYC, when used in combination, provided a safer alternative to GCs while exhibiting equal, if not superior, effectiveness and results, thus, paving the way for additional in-depth research in a larger population of interest.
A Systematic Review on the Management of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury in Transfusion-Dependent Sickle Cell Disease
The onset of respiratory distress and acute lung injury (ALI) following a blood transfusion is known as transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), although its pathophysiology remains unknown. Even though sickle cell disease (SCD) has been studied for more than a century, few therapeutic and management strategies adequately address the emergence of TRALI. TRALI, an immune-mediated transfusion response that can result in life-threatening consequences, is diagnosed based on clinical signs and symptoms. Early detection and treatment increase the chances of survival and, in most cases, result in a complete recovery. Our objective is to provide a firm grasp of the present status of SCD-related TRALI care and therapy. After exploring multiple databases, this study offers evidence-based guidelines to aid clinicians and other healthcare professionals make decisions concerning transfusion assistance for SCD and the management of transfusion-related complications. Other risk factors for acute lung injury including sepsis aspiration should be ruled out throughout the diagnostic process. Several recent studies have shown that immunotherapy or immunological targets can effectively prevent these complications. Red cell transfusions, red cell antigen matching optimization, and iron chelation can also help reduce negative consequences. It is to be noted that poor clinical outcomes can be avoided by early detection and treatment of hemolytic transfusion reactions. Finally, preventing the onset of TRALI may be the most effective therapeutic strategy for SCD patients who rely on blood transfusions for survival.
The Effect of Tranexamic Acid Administration on Early Endothelial Damage Following Posterior Lumbar Fusion Surgery
Journal of clinical medicine. 2021;10(7)
Tranexamic acid (TXA) protects against endothelial glycocalyx injury in vitro. We aimed to evaluate whether TXA could protect against endothelial glycocalyx degradation in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery. Patients aged 30-80 years were enrolled. The TXA group was administered a loading dose of 10 mg/kg, followed by a 1 mg/kg/h infusion. Serum syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate concentrations, which are biomarkers of glycocalyx degradation, were measured at preoperative baseline (T0), immediately post-surgery (T1), and 2 h post-surgery (T2). Postoperative complications were assessed, including hypotension, desaturation, and acute kidney injury. Among the 121 patients who completed the study, 60 received TXA. There were no significant differences in the marker concentrations at each time point. However, the postoperative increase in syndecan-1 levels from baseline was significantly attenuated in the TXA group compared with the control group (median (interquartile range); T1 vs. T0: -1.6 (-5.3-2.6) vs. 2.2 (-0.7-4.8), p = 0.001; T2 vs. T0: 0.0 (-3.3-5.5) vs. 3.6 (-0.1-9.3), p = 0.013). Postoperative complications were significantly associated with the magnitude of the change in syndecan-1 levels (for T2 vs. T0: odds ratio: 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.14, p = 0.006). TXA administration was associated with reduced syndecan-1 shedding in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery.