Computer-Aided Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Ulcer and Hemorrhage Using Wireless Capsule Endoscopy: Systematic Review and Diagnostic Test Accuracy Meta-analysis
Bang CS, Lee JJ, Baik GH
Journal of medical Internet research. 2021;23(12):e33267
BACKGROUND Interpretation of capsule endoscopy images or movies is operator-dependent and time-consuming. As a result, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has been applied to enhance the efficacy and accuracy of the review process. Two previous meta-analyses reported the diagnostic performance of CAD models for gastrointestinal ulcers or hemorrhage in capsule endoscopy. However, insufficient systematic reviews have been conducted, which cannot determine the real diagnostic validity of CAD models. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diagnostic test accuracy of CAD models for gastrointestinal ulcers or hemorrhage using wireless capsule endoscopic images. METHODS We conducted core databases searching for studies based on CAD models for the diagnosis of ulcers or hemorrhage using capsule endoscopy and presenting data on diagnostic performance. Systematic review and diagnostic test accuracy meta-analysis were performed. RESULTS Overall, 39 studies were included. The pooled area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of CAD models for the diagnosis of ulcers (or erosions) were .97 (95% confidence interval, .95-.98), .93 (.89-.95), .92 (.89-.94), and 138 (79-243), respectively. The pooled area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio of CAD models for the diagnosis of hemorrhage (or angioectasia) were .99 (.98-.99), .96 (.94-0.97), .97 (.95-.99), and 888 (343-2303), respectively. Subgroup analyses showed robust results. Meta-regression showed that published year, number of training images, and target disease (ulcers vs erosions, hemorrhage vs angioectasia) was found to be the source of heterogeneity. No publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS CAD models showed high performance for the optical diagnosis of gastrointestinal ulcer and hemorrhage in wireless capsule endoscopy.
Efficacy of Timolol in a Novel Intranasal Thermosensitive Gel for Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia-Associated Epistaxis: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Peterson AM, Lee JJ, Kallogjeri D, Schneider JS, Chakinala MM, Piccirillo JF
JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery. 2020
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IMPORTANCE Other than nasal moisturizers, no standard-of-care medical therapy exists for epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). With epistaxis as the greatest cause of morbidity in patients with HHT, there is a need to identify effective topical therapies. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy and safety of an intranasal timolol thermosensitive gel vs placebo thermosensitive gel in treating HHT-associated epistaxis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted from October 29, 2019, to May 20, 2020, at a tertiary care center. A total of 27 patients with HHT and moderate-to-severe epistaxis were recruited and included in this prespecified analysis: 14 in the timolol group and 13 in the placebo group. Inclusion criteria included (1) age 18 years or older, (2) clinical or genetic diagnosis of HHT, (3) screening Epistaxis Severity Score (ESS) of 4 or greater and 2 or more nosebleeds cumulatively lasting at least 5 minutes per week, (4) stable epistaxis pattern over the preceding 3 months, and (5) no change in epistaxis treatment or nasal hygiene regimen in the preceding month. Exclusion criteria included (1) contraindications to systemic β-blocker administration, (2) use of medications interacting with timolol, (3) use of antiangiogenic medications in the last month before recruitment, and (4) use of anticoagulants, antiplatelets, or fibrinolytic therapies within the last month. INTERVENTIONS Novel thermosensitive intranasal timolol (0.1%) gel vs placebo thermosensitive gel applied twice daily to each nostril for 8 weeks. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the median change in ESS and percentage of participants reaching the minimal clinically important difference in ESS. Secondary outcomes were changes in Clinical Global Impression-Severity and Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores, Nasal Outcome Score for Epistaxis in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, and hemoglobin level. RESULTS Of 27 participants randomized (median [range] age, 55 [20-76] years; 14 women [52%]; 25 White [93%]), a total of 23 patients with HHT completed the primary outcome measure. Within the timolol gel and placebo gel groups, respectively, the median change (range) in ESS was 2.32 (0.22 to 5.97) vs 1.96 (-0.91 to 5.98), and 9 of 11 (82%) vs 9 of 12 (75%) participants experienced a clinically meaningful improvement in ESS. Twenty-two of the 23 participants (96%) reported improvement via the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score, with 81% vs 58% of participants reporting reduced severity of epistaxis in the timolol vs placebo group, respectively. Of participants completing the Nasal Outcome Score for Epistaxis in HHT at follow-up visit, 7 of 10 (70%) in the timolol group achieved a clinically important difference vs 5 of 10 (50%) in the placebo group. There was no change in hemoglobin level between or within groups. Zero participants in the placebo group and 2 of 13 (15%) in the timolol group withdrew because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Thermosensitive gel, alone or in combination with timolol, was highly effective in reducing HHT-associated epistaxis. The timolol group had greater improvement in epistaxis and quality of life than the placebo group, but effect estimates were imprecise, and no definitive conclusions on the superiority of timolol can be drawn. Physicians treating patients with HHT-associated epistaxis should consider a thermosensitive gel (with or without timolol) for their patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04139018.
Venous Thromboembolism among Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 Undergoing Thromboprophylaxis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Chi G, Lee JJ, Jamil A, Gunnam V, Najafi H, Memar Montazerin S, Shojaei F, Marszalek J
Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020;9(8)
BACKGROUND Preliminary evidence indicates that prophylactic-dose thromboprophylaxis may be inadequate to control the increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Additionally, it remains unclear whether the D-dimer measurement is useful for VTE risk stratification among COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to offer benchmark data on the incidence of VTE and to examine the difference in D-dimer levels among anticoagulated COVID-19 patients with and without VTE incident. METHODS A comprehensive literature review of PubMed from inception to May 2020 was performed for original studies that reported the frequency of VTE and death among COVID-19 patients who received thromboprophylaxis on hospitalization. The endpoints included VTE (a composite of pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT)), PE, DVT, and mortality. RESULTS A total of 11 cohort studies were included. Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 23.9% (95% confidence interval (CI), 16.2% to 33.7%; I(2) = 93%) developed VTE despite anticoagulation. PE and DVT were detected in 11.6% (95% CI, 7.5% to 17.5%; I(2) = 92%) and 11.9% (95% CI, 6.3% to 21.3%; I(2) = 93%) of patients, respectively. Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) had a higher risk for VTE (30.4% )95% CI, 19.6% to 43.9%)) than those in the ward (13.0% (95% CI, 5.9% to 26.3%)). The mortality was estimated at 21.3% (95% CI, 17.0% to 26.4%; I(2) = 53%). COVID-19 patients who developed VTE had higher D-dimer levels than those who did not develop VTE (mean difference, 2.05 µg/mL; 95% CI, 0.30 to 3.80 µg/mL; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS The heightened and heterogeneous risk of VTE in COVID-19 despite prophylactic anticoagulation calls into research on the pathogenesis of thromboembolic complications and strategy of thromboprophylaxis and risk stratification. Prominent elevation of D-dimer may be associated with VTE development and can be used to identify high-risk subsets.
Comparative efficacy and safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose for the treatment of preoperative anemia in patients with menorrhagia: An open-label, multicenter, randomized study
Lee S, Ryu KJ, Lee ES, Lee KH, Lee JJ, Kim T
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2019;45(4):858-864
AIM: To compare ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) with iron sucrose (IS) for the effective and timely treatment of preoperative iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in women with menorrhagia. METHODS This open-label, multicenter, two-arm study randomized patients to receive either a single dose of FCM or multiple doses of IS. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≥10 g/dL within 2 weeks after the first administration. Secondary endpoints included mean Hb levels, time to reach Hb ≥10 g/dL and quality of life (QoL). RESULTS In total, 101 patients (FCM n = 52; IS n = 49) were randomized to the study treatments. FCM was as effective as IS in achieving Hb ≥10 g/dL within 2 weeks after the first administration (78.8% vs 72.3%). The time to reach Hb ≥10 g/dL was significantly shorter in the FCM group than in the IS group (7.7 days vs 10.5 days). Mean Hb levels were higher in the FCM-treated patients than in the IS-treated patients with borderline significance. QoL scores did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION Ferric carboxymaltose is as effective as IS in correcting preoperative IDA among patients with menorrhagia. The added benefits of FCM over IS included significant rapid correction of IDA, replenishment of iron stores and reduced hospital visits.
Efficacy and safety of ferric carboxymaltose versus ferrous sulfate for iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy: subgroup analysis of Korean women
Shim JY, Kim MY, Kim YJ, Lee Y, Lee JJ, Jun JK, Shin JC, Cho YK, Lee KY, Kim A, et al
BMC Pregnancy & Childbirth.. 2018;18((1)):349.
BACKGROUND We performed a post-hoc subgroup analysis in Korean women who participated in the Phase III FER-ASAP (FERric carboxymaltose-Assessment of SAfety and efficacy in Pregnancy) study to compare the efficacy and safety of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) with oral ferrous sulfate (FS). METHODS Pregnant Korean women (gestational weeks 16-33) with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) were randomized 1:1 to FCM (n = 46; 1000-1500 mg iron) or FS (n = 44; 200 mg iron/day) group for 12 weeks. The primary objective was to compare the mean hemoglobin (Hb) increase at week 3; secondary objectives included change in iron parameters, quality of life (QoL), and safety. RESULTS Baseline characteristics of the Korean subgroup were consistent with those of non-Korean FER-ASAP population except for lower body-mass index and higher maternal age. Hb level increases were comparable between the two treatment groups in Korean women at week 3 (FCM 1.23 +/- 0.89 g/dL vs FS 1.14 +/- 1.72 g/dL). Iron parameters improved over time as secondary endpoints were significantly in favor of FCM. In terms of QoL, FCM treatment significantly improved the mental and physical components as well as vitality prior to delivery. Both treatments were well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS FCM provided significantly greater improvements in iron parameters and QoL compared to FS in the Korean subgroup. FCM may be a preferable alternative to currently available treatments for IDA during pregnancy.