A systematic review of population pharmacokinetic analyses of polyclonal immunoglobulin G therapy
International immunopharmacology. 2021;97:107721
BACKGROUND Population pharmacokinetics (popPK) using the nonlinear mixed-effect (NLME) modeling approach is an essential tool for guiding dose individualization. Several popPK analyses using the NLME have been conducted to characterize the pharmacokinetics of immunoglobulin G (IgG). OBJECTIVE To summarize the current information on popPK of polyclonal IgG therapy. METHOD A systematic search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science databases from inception to December 2020. Additional relevant studies were also included by reviewing the reference list of the reviewed articles. All popPK studies that employed the NLME modeling approach were included and data were synthesized descriptively. RESULTS This review included seven studies. Most of the popPK models were developed in patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). IgG pharmacokinetics was described as a two-compartment model in five studies, while it was described as a one-compartment model in two other studies. Among all tested covariates, weight was consistently identified as a significant predictor for clearance (CL) of IgG. Whereas, weight and disease type were found to be significant predictors for the volume of distribution in central compartment (Vc). In a typical 70 kg adult, the median estimated values of Vc and CL were 4.04 L and 0.144 L/day, respectively. The between subject variability of Vc was considered large. Only two studies evaluated their models using external data. CONCLUSIONS Seven popPK studies of IgG were found and discussed, with only weight being a significant covariate across all studies. Future studies linking pharmacokinetics with pharmacodynamics in PID and other patient populations are required.
A Systematic Review and Meta-regression Analysis on the Impact of Increasing IgG Trough Level on Infection Rates in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients on Intravenous IgG Therapy
J Clin Immunol. 2020
PURPOSE We conducted a systematic review and meta-regression analysis to evaluate the impact of increasing immunoglobulin G (IgG) trough levels on the clinical outcomes in patients with PID receiving intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) treatment. METHODS Systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane. Other relevant articles were searched by reviewing the references of the reviewed article. All clinical trials with documented IgG trough levels and clinical outcome of interest in patients receiving IVIG treatment were eligible to be included in this review. Meta-regression analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta-analysis Software. Additional sensitivity analyses were undertaken to evaluate the robustness of the overall results. RESULTS Twenty-eight clinical studies with 1218 patients reported from year 2001 to 2018 were included. The mean IVIG dose used ranges from 387 to 560 mg/kg every 3 to 4 weekly, and mean IgG trough obtained ranges from 660 to 1280 mg/dL. Random-effects meta-regression slope shows that IgG trough level increases significantly by 73 mg/dL with every increase of 100 mg/kg dose of IVIG (p < 0.05). Overall infection rates reduced significantly by 13% with every increment of 100 mg/dL of IgG trough up to 960 mg/dL (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION This meta-analysis concludes that titrating the IgG trough levels up to 960 mg/dL progressively reduces the rate of infections, and there is less additional benefit beyond that. Further studies to validate this result are required before it can be used in clinical practice.