Increased prevalence of transfusion-transmitted diseases among people with tattoos: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2022;17(1):e0262990
Whether having a tattoo increases the risk of transfusion-transmitted diseases (TTDs) is controversial. Although a few studies have suggested a strong association between having tattoos and TTDs, other studies have not shown the significance of the association. In addition, previous studies mainly focused only on hepatitis C viral infections. The objective of our study was to identify the prevalence and risk of TTDs in people with tattoos as compared with the non-tattooed population. A systematic review of the studies published before January 22, 2021, was performed using the Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Observational studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and syphilis infections in people with and without tattoos were included. Studies that reported disease status without serological confirmation were excluded. A total of 121 studies were quantitatively analyzed. HCV (odds ratio [OR], 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.76), HBV (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.31-1.83), and HIV infections (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 2.34-5.39) were more prevalent in the tattooed population. In subgroup analyses, the prevalence of HCV infection was significantly elevated in the general population, hospital patient, blood donor, intravenous (IV) drug user, and prisoner groups. IV drug users and prisoners showed high prevalence rates of HBV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection was significantly increased in the general population and prisoner groups. Having a tattoo is associated with an increased prevalence of TTDs. Our approach clarifies in-depth and supports a guideline for TTD screening in the tattooed population.
Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenger in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have oxidative stress. Oxidative stress contributes to the development and progression of perihematomal edema (PHE) in brain hemorrhage patients. We hypothesized that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers might have a neuroprotective role in the acute period of patients with ICH. METHODS This prospective, multicenter, single-blind, randomized study was conducted between June 2017 and October 2019. Intracranial bleeding, including spontaneous ICH, secondary ICH due to vascular anomalies, venous thrombosis, neoplasms, or hemorrhagic infarction, were included in our study. These ROS scavengers were given for 14 days with a dose of N-acetylcysteine 2000 mg/d and selenium 1600 µg/d intravenously. Other patients received a placebo. The primary outcome was hemorrhage and PHE volume changes in 2-week follow-up computed tomography between ROS scavenger versus placebo groups. RESULTS In total, 448 patients were enrolled with 123 patients remaining after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the ROS scavenger (n=57) and placebo (n=66) groups. No significant differences in baseline hematoma and PHE volumes were observed but 2 weeks follow-up computed tomography showed significant differences in PHE volume (21.90±17.63 versus 30.66±32.35, P<0.01) and PHE ratio (1.19±0.73 versus 2.05±1.27, P<0.01). Among clinical factors, time to reach target Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (5.98 hours [95% CI, 4.82-7.241 versus 8.42 hours], [95% CI, 6.57-10.77], P<0.01) and the length of intensive care unit stays (6.46 days [95% CI, 2.38-10.55 versus 12.66 days], [95% CI, 8.47-16.85], P<0.01) were significantly shortened among patients who received ROS scavengers than among patients who did not receive ROS scavenger. CONCLUSIONS ROS scavenger showed a significantly reduced PHE volume, time to reach target Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale, and shortened length of intensive care unit stay in patients with acute ICH. Early and high doses of ROS scavengers in a combination regimen may have played a key role in obtaining a favorable outcome in our study.
A systematic literature review of frequency of vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell disease
Orphanet journal of rare diseases. 2021;16(1):460
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a collection of rare inherited blood disorders affecting approximately 100,000 people in the U.S. and 20-25 million people globally. Individuals with SCD experience recurrent episodes of severe and unpredictable pain that are caused by vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs), a hallmark of the disease. VOCs are the primary cause of hospitalization in SCD, result in missed workdays and school days, and decrease quality of life (QoL). Although VOCs cause significant burden in the lives of individuals with SCD, there is no synthesis on the frequency of VOCs in the real world. This systematic literature review sought to identify literature describing the frequency of VOCs experienced by individuals with SCD in real-world settings. METHODS MEDLINE and 6 congresses were searched (date range: January 1, 2000 to June 30, 2020). Studies were reviewed independently by two researchers. Studies assessing frequency or prevalence of VOCs or VOC-related outcomes were included. RESULTS Of 1438 studies identified in the search, 52 met pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Reported frequency of VOCs varied widely ranging from a mean or median of 0 VOCs/year to 18.2 VOCs/year. The proportion of patients experiencing ≥ 3 VOCs/year ranged from 4 to 67% and the proportion of patients experiencing ≥ 5 VOCs/year ranged from 18 to 59%. Measures of VOC severity were limited, with 13 studies considering frequency of complicated VOCs and only 1 study reporting duration of VOC episodes. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to systematically assess published evidence pertaining to VOCs in real-world settings. Reported VOC frequency in real-world settings varied widely, with a majority of studies only considering VOCs managed in an inpatient or outpatient setting. Studies that considered VOCs managed at home reported a higher frequency of VOCs, suggesting that many studies may underestimate the frequency of VOCs. This systematic literature review (SLR) highlights the need for consistent reporting of (1) self-reported VOCs, including those managed at home, (2) definitions of VOCs, (3) complicated VOCs, and (4) duration of VOC episodes in literature.
A randomized controlled trial of ovarian reserve preservation and hemostasis during ovarian cystectomy
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):8495
The preservation of ovarian reserve during laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) ovarian cystectomy is crucial for reproductive-age women. This study was a single-blinded, single-center, and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of hemostatic agents on the preservation of ovarian reserve and hemostasis during LESS ovarian cystectomy. Patients with unilateral ovarian cyst were randomized to the hemostatic agent and coagulation groups according to the hemostasis method. Afterwards, the patients underwent LESS ovarian cystectomy, and hemostasis was performed after ovarian cyst excision according to the assigned hemostasis method. If hemostasis was not completed within 10 min. After discharge, the patients were followed until 3 months after surgery. We compared the hemoglobin, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels, and ovarian volumes before surgery, and 2 days, 1 week, and 3 months after surgery (3 M-POST), and the decline ratio between the two groups. The decline ratio of serum AMH levels was greater at 3 M-POST in the coagulation than in the hemostatic agent group (median intention-to-treat [ITT], - 36.7 vs. - 13.3%; per-protocol [PP], - 36.8 vs. - 13.3%; P < 0.05). Notably, the difference of the decline ratio of serum AMH levels was only shown in endometriosis patients (median; ITT, - 50.7 vs. - 14.4%; PP, - 50.7% vs. - 14.4%; P < 0.05), while there was no difference in non-endometriosis patients. In conclusion, Hemostatic agents may be non-inferior to bipolar coagulation for preserving ovarian reserve and hemostasis during LESS ovarian cystectomy, in particular, for endometriosis patients. (Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03374397).
Patient-Reported Outcomes and Economic Burden of Adults with Sickle Cell Disease in the United States: A Systematic Review
Int J Gen Med. 2020;13:361-377
PURPOSE To systematically estimate the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and economic burden of sickle cell disease (SCD) among adults in the United States (US). PATIENTS AND METHODS Two systematic literature reviews (SLRs), one each for the PROs and economic topics, were performed using MEDLINE and Embase to identify observational studies of adults with SCD. Included studies were published between 2007 and 2018 and evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQL), function, healthcare resource utilization (HCRU), or costs. Given the high degree of clinical and methodological heterogeneity, findings were summarized qualitatively. RESULTS The SLRs identified 7 studies evaluating the PROs and 15 studies evaluating the economic burden meeting the pre-specified selection criteria. The PRO evidence showed the prevalence of depression and anxiety to be 21-33% and 7-36%, respectively, in adults with SCD. The mean SF-36 physical summary scores ranged from 33.6 to 59.0 and from 46.3 to 61.5 for the mental summary scores. Overall HRQL for adults with SCD was poor and significantly worse in those with opioid use. Adult SCD patients were found to have varying rates of emergency department (ED) utilization (0.3-3.5 annual ED visits), hospitalizations (0.5-27.9 per patient per year), and/or readmission (12-41%). Key factors associated with significant HCRU were age, dental infection, and SCD-related complications. SCD specialized care settings and SCD intensive management strategy were reported to significantly decrease the number of hospitalizations. CONCLUSION This systematic evidence synthesis found that disease burden measured by PROs and economic burden of SCD on adults in the US are substantial despite the availability of approved SCD treatments during 2007-2018. The use of hydroxyurea, optimal management with opioids, and employing intensive treatment strategies may help decrease the overall burden to patients and healthcare systems. Published data on costs associated with SCD are limited and highlight the need for more economic studies to characterize the full burden of the disease.
Adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States (22 studies).
Two systematic literature reviews to estimate the patient-reported outcomes and economic burden of SCD.
The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 21-33% and 7-36%, respectively. Overall health-related quality of life for adults with SCD was poor and significantly worse in those with opioid use. Adult SCD patients were found to have varying rates of emergency department (ED) utilization (0.3-3.5 annual ED visits), hospitalizations (0.5-27.9 per patient per year), and/or readmission (12-41%). Key factors associated with significant healthcare resource utilization were age, dental infection, and SCD-related complications. SCD specialized care settings and SCD intensive management strategy were reported to significantly decrease the number of hospitalizations.
The Effect of Fibrinogen/Thrombin-Coated Collagen Patch (TachoSil((R))) Application in Pancreaticojejunostomy for Prevention of Pancreatic Fistula After Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial
World journal of surgery. 2019
BACKGROUND Fibrin sealants and topical glue have been studied to reduce the incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPF) after pancreatico-enteric anastomosis, but a definitive innovation is still needed. We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of fibrin sealant patch applied to pancreatico-enteric anastomosis to reduce postoperative complications, including POPF. METHODS This study was a single-center, prospective, randomized, phase IV trial involving three pancreaticobiliary surgeons. The primary outcome was POPF; secondary outcomes included complications, drain removal days, hospital stay, readmission rate, and cost. Risk factors for POPF were identified by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 124 patients were enrolled. Biochemical leakage (BL) or POPF occurred in 16 patients (25.8%) in the intervention group and 23 patients (37.1%) in the control group (no statistical significance). Clinically relevant POPF occurred in 4 patients (6.5%) in both the intervention and control groups (p = 1.000). Hospital stay (11.6 days vs. 12.1 days, p = 0.585) and drain removal days (5.7 days vs. 5.3 days, p = 0.281) were not statistically different between two groups. Complication rates were not different between the two groups (p = 0.506); nor were readmission rates (12.9% vs. 11.3%, p = 1.000) or cost ($13,549 vs. $15,038, p = 0.103). In multivariable analysis, age and soft pancreas texture were independent risk factors for BL or POPF in this study. Applying fibrin sealant patch is not a negative risk factor, but the p value may indicate a likelihood of reducing the incidence of BL (p = 0.084). CONCLUSIONS Fibrin sealant patches after pancreaticojejunostomy did not reduce the incidence of POPF or other postoperative complications. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03269955).
Comparative efficacy and safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose for the treatment of preoperative anemia in patients with menorrhagia: An open-label, multicenter, randomized study
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2019;45(4):858-864
AIM: To compare ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) with iron sucrose (IS) for the effective and timely treatment of preoperative iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in women with menorrhagia. METHODS This open-label, multicenter, two-arm study randomized patients to receive either a single dose of FCM or multiple doses of IS. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved hemoglobin (Hb) levels ≥10 g/dL within 2 weeks after the first administration. Secondary endpoints included mean Hb levels, time to reach Hb ≥10 g/dL and quality of life (QoL). RESULTS In total, 101 patients (FCM n = 52; IS n = 49) were randomized to the study treatments. FCM was as effective as IS in achieving Hb ≥10 g/dL within 2 weeks after the first administration (78.8% vs 72.3%). The time to reach Hb ≥10 g/dL was significantly shorter in the FCM group than in the IS group (7.7 days vs 10.5 days). Mean Hb levels were higher in the FCM-treated patients than in the IS-treated patients with borderline significance. QoL scores did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION Ferric carboxymaltose is as effective as IS in correcting preoperative IDA among patients with menorrhagia. The added benefits of FCM over IS included significant rapid correction of IDA, replenishment of iron stores and reduced hospital visits.
Use of platelet-rich fibrin in regenerative dentistry: a systematic review
Clinical Oral Investigations. 2017;21((6):):1913-1927
OBJECTIVES Research across many fields of medicine now points towards the clinical advantages of combining regenerative procedures with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). This systematic review aimed to gather the extensive number of articles published to date on PRF in the dental field to better understand the clinical procedures where PRF may be utilized to enhance tissue/bone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Manuscripts were searched systematically until May 2016 and separated into the following categories: intrabony and furcation defect regeneration, extraction socket management, sinus lifting procedures, gingival recession treatment, and guided bone regeneration (GBR) including horizontal/vertical bone augmentation procedures. Only human randomized clinical trials were included for assessment. RESULTS In total, 35 articles were selected and divided accordingly (kappa = 0.94). Overall, the use of PRF has been most investigated in periodontology for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects and gingival recessions where the majority of studies have demonstrated favorable results in soft tissue management and repair. Little to no randomized clinical trials were found for extraction socket management although PRF has been shown to significantly decrease by tenfold dry sockets of third molars. Very little to no data was available directly investigating the effects of PRF on new bone formation in GBR, horizontal/vertical bone augmentation procedures, treatment of peri-implantitis, and sinus lifting procedures. CONCLUSIONS Much investigation now supports the use of PRF for periodontal and soft tissue repair. Despite this, there remains a lack of well-conducted studies demonstrating convincingly the role of PRF during hard tissue bone regeneration. Future human randomized clinical studies evaluating the use of PRF on bone formation thus remain necessary. CLINICAL RELEVANCE PRF was shown to improve soft tissue generation and limit dimensional changes post-extraction, with little available data to date supporting its use in GBR.
Effect of fresh red blood cell transfusions on clinical outcomes in premature, very low-birth-weight infants: the ARIPI randomized trial
JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association. 2012;308((14):):1443-51.
CONTEXT Even though red blood cells (RBCs) are lifesaving in neonatal intensivecare, transfusing older RBCs may result in higher rates of organ dysfunction,nosocomial infection, and length of hospital stay. OBJECTIVE To determine if RBCs stored for 7 days or less compared with usual standards decreased rates ofmajor nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction in neonatal intensive care unitpatients requiring at least 1 RBC transfusion. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 377 premature infants with birthweights less than 1250 g admitted to 6 Canadian tertiary neonatal intensive careunits between May 2006 and June 2011. INTERVENTION Patients were randomlyassigned to receive transfusion of RBCs stored 7 days or less (n = 188) vsstandard-issue RBCs in accordance with standard blood bank practice (n = 189). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was a composite measure of majorneonatal morbidities, including necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy ofprematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and intraventricular hemorrhage, as wellas death. The primary outcome was measured within the entire period of neonatalintensive care unit stay up to 90 days after randomization. The rate ofnosocomial infection was a secondary outcome. RESULTS The mean age of transfusedblood was 5.1 (SD, 2.0) days in the fresh RBC group and 14.6 (SD, 8.3) days inthe standard group. Among neonates in the fresh RBC group, 99 (52.7%) had theprimary outcome compared with 100 (52.9%) in the standard RBC group (relativerisk, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.82-1.21). The rate of clinically suspected infection in thefresh RBC group was 77.7% (n = 146) compared with 77.2% (n = 146) in the standardRBC group (relative risk, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.12), and the rate of positivecultures was 67.5% (n = 127) in the fresh RBC group compared with 64.0% (n = 121)in the standard RBC group (relative risk, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.91-1.22). CONCLUSION In this trial, the use of fresh RBCs compared with standard blood bank practicedid not improve outcomes in premature, very low-birth-weight infants requiring atransfusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00326924;Current Controlled Trials Identifier: ISRCTN65939658.
The age of red blood cells in premature infants (ARIPI) randomized controlled trial: study design
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2009;23((1):):55-61.
Despite recent trends in decreasing transfusion thresholds and the development of technologies designed to avoid allogeneic exposure, allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions remain an important supportive and life-saving measure for neonatal intensive care patients experiencing illness and anemia. Reluctantly, a number of laboratory and observational studies have indicated that the amount of time RBCs are stored can affect oxygen delivery to tissues. Consequently, older RBCs may result in higher rates of organ dysfunction, nosocomial infection, and lengths of stay. Because of such harmful effects, an evaluation of the association between age of blood and nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction is warranted. The aim of the study was to determine if RBCs stored for 7 days or less (fresh RBCs) compared to current standard transfusion practice decreases major nosocomial infection and organ dysfunction in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit and requiring at least one RBC transfusion. This study is a double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled trial design. The trial will be an effectiveness study evaluating the effectiveness of stored vs fresh RBCs in neonates requiring transfusion. Neonatal patients requiring at least one unit of RBCs will be randomized to receive either (1) RBCs stored no longer than 7 days or (2) standard practice. The study was conducted in Canadian university-affiliated level III (tertiary) neonatal intensive care units. The primary outcome for this study will be a composite measure of major neonatal morbidities (necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and mortality). Secondary outcomes include individual items of the composite measure and nosocomial infection (bacteremia, septic shock, and pneumonia). The sample size calculations have been estimated based on the formula for 2 independent proportions using an alpha of . 05, a (1-beta) of . 80, and a 10% noncompliance factor. The baseline rate for our composite measure is estimated to be 65% as indicated by the literature. Assuming a 15% absolute risk reduction with the use of RBCs stored 7 days or less, our estimated total sample size required will be 450 (225 patients per treatment arm). The Age of Red Blood Cells in Premature Infants (ARIPI) trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials. gov) no. NCT00326924 and current controlled trials ISRCTN65939658.