Diuretic effect of co-administration of furosemide and albumin in comparison to furosemide therapy alone: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(12):e0260312
BACKGROUND It has been a matter of much debate whether the co-administration of furosemide and albumin can achieve better diuresis and natriuresis than furosemide treatment alone. There is inconsistency in published trials regarding the effect of this combination therapy. We, therefore, conducted this meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of furosemide and albumin co-administration and the factors potentially influencing the diuretic effect of such co-administration. METHODS In accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched the PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases. Prospective studies with adult populations which comparing the effect of furosemide and albumin co-administration with furosemide alone were included. The outcomes including diuretic effect and natriuresis effect measured by hourly urine output and hourly urine sodium excretion from both groups were extracted. Random effect model was applied for conducting meta-analysis. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity of treatment effects. RESULTS By including 13 studies with 422 participants, the meta-analysis revealed that furosemide with albumin co-administration increased urine output by 31.45 ml/hour and increased urine excretion by 1.76 mEq/hour in comparison to furosemide treatment alone. The diuretic effect of albumin and furosemide co-administration was better in participants with low baseline serum albumin levels (< 2.5 g/dL) and high prescribed albumin infusion doses (> 30 g), and the effect was more significant within 12 hours after administration. Diuretic effect of co-administration was better in those with baseline Cr > 1.2 mg/dL and natriuresis effect of co-administration was better in those with baseline eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. CONCLUSION Co-administration of furosemide with albumin might enhance diuresis and natriuresis effects than furosemide treatment alone but with high heterogeneity in treatment response. According to the present meta-analysis, combination therapy might provide advantages compared to the furosemide therapy alone in patients with baseline albumin levels lower than 2.5 g/dL or in patients receiving higher albumin infusion doses or in patients with impaired renal function. Owing to high heterogeneity and limited enrolled participants, further parallel randomized controlled trials are warranted to examine our outcome. REGISTRATION PROSEPRO ID CRD42020211002; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.
Efficacy of Surgicel(R) (Fibrillar) for preventing bleeding after ESD for gastric epithelial tumors
Journal of Digestive Diseases. 2018;19((11):):657-663.
BACKGROUND Surgicel(R) (Fibrillar), i.e., oxidized regenerated cellulose, is used to control oozing bleeding after surgery, but few studies have assessed its effect on complications after endoscopic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Surgicel(R) for preventing bleeding after ESD for gastric epithelial tumors. METHODS From November 2012 to December 2013, patients scheduled for ESD of gastric epithelial tumors were prospectively enrolled in this study. Patients were assigned randomly to monotherapy with a PPI (MT group) or combination therapy with Surgicel(R) and H2 RA (CT group) for preventing bleeding after ESD. The major bleeding rate and changes in hemoglobin at 1 and 7 days after ESD were evaluated. RESULTS Among the 157 enrolled patients (111 males, 46 females), 78 were assigned to the MT group and 79 to the CT group. The major bleeding rate was lower in the CT group (6/74, 8.1%) than in the MT group (12/72, 16.7%), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.354). The change in hemoglobin was significantly less marked in the CT group than the MT group at 1 day after ESD (-0.62 +/- 0.90 vs. -0.89 +/- 0.62 g/dL, p = 0.045). CONCLUSIONS Combination therapy with Surgicel(R) and an H2 RA decreased the rate of bleeding similarly to PPIs. Addition of Surgicel(R) to an H2 RA could be considered for patients with bleeding tendency, or who require continuous anti-platelet therapy to prevent bleeding after ESD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Leukoreduction of blood transfusions does not diminish transfusion-associated microchimerism in trauma patients
BACKGROUND Transfusion of trauma patients can result in long-term survival of donor white blood cells (WBCs) or transfusion-associated microchimerism(TA-MC). The aim was to determine whether leukoreduction of blood transfusions, advocated to reduce the immunomodulatory effect of transfusion, decreases the likelihood of developing TA-MC. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A subgroup of trauma patients from a randomized trial was examined, evaluating the risk of infection following leukoreduced versus nonleukoreduced blood transfusion. Patients' blood was sampled at least 1 month after hospital discharge, and TA-MC was assessed with quantitative allele-specific polymerase chain reaction detection of differences at the HLA-DR locus or a panel of insertion-deletion polymorphism loci distributed throughout the chromosomal complement. At the time of blood sampling, a scripted interview was used to ascertain symptoms suggestive of chronic graft-versus host disease (cGVHD). RESULTS For 67 patients evaluated, the mean age was 43 +/- 17 years and mean Injury Severity Score was 24 +/- 12. Median time from injury to blood sampling for TA-MC was 240 (interquartile range, 116-360) days. Nine of 32 patients (28%) in the nonleukoreduced transfusion group developed TA-MC compared to 13 of 35 patients (37%) in the leukoreduced group (p = 0. 43). Subjects with TA-MC were no more likely than subjects without TA-MC to have at least one symptom suggestive of cGVHD (64% vs. 76%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS TA-MC seems to be a prevalent condition among injured patients at the second of two regional trauma centers evaluated, suggesting that it is a common phenomenon after transfusion in the setting of injury. Although leukoreduction removes greater than 99. 9 percent of donor WBCs, it fails to prevent or even substantially reduce the likelihood of developing TA-MC. TA-MC does not appear to be strongly associated with symptoms suggestive of cGVHD several months after transfusion.
Survival of transfused donor white blood cells in HIV-infected recipients
The appearance and expansion of donor white blood cells in a recipient after transfusion has many potential biologic ramifications. Although patients with HIV infection are ostensibly at high risk for microchimerism, transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is rare. The purpose of this study was to search for sustained microchimerism in such patients. Blood samples were collected from 93 HIV-infected women (a subset from the Viral Activation Transfusion Study, an NHLBI multicenter randomized trial comparing leukoreduced versus unmodified red blood cell [RBC] transfusions) before and after transfusions from male donors. Donor lymphocytes were detected in posttransfusion specimens using a quantitative Y-chromosome-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles were identified with allele-specific PCR primers and probes. Five of 47 subjects randomized to receive nonleukoreduced RBCs had detectable male lymphocytes 1 to 2 weeks after transfusion, but no subject had detectable male cells more than 4 weeks after a transfusion. In 4 subjects studied, donor-specific HLA haplotypes were detected in posttransfusion specimens, consistent with one or more donors' cells. None of 46 subjects randomized to receive leukoreduced RBCs had detectable male lymphocytes in the month after transfusion. Development of sustained microchimerism after transfusion in HIV-infected patients is rare; HIV-infected patients do not appear to be at risk for TA-GVHD.
WBC reduction in RBC concentrates by prestorage filtration: multicenter experience
BACKGROUND As universal leukocyte (WBC) reduction (ULR) is being considered as a new standard, few data are available on the performance of WBC-reduction filtration in routine practice. The performance of WBC-reduction in RBCs, using varied filtration practices, in meeting the current FDA requirement (<5 x 10(6)), Council of Europe (EC) recommendation, the proposed FDA requirement (<1 x 10(6)), and a more stringent proposal (<5 x 10(5)) for residual WBCs per RBC unit was assessed and compared. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Participating facilities were the 11 sites of the Viral Activation Transfusion Study (VATS), a prospective study of the impact of transfusion with and without WBC-reduction on survival and HIV viral load in HIV-1-infected patients. Patients randomly assigned to undergo WBC reduction were required to receive RBCs < or =14 days old that had undergone prestorage (within 72 hours of collection) WBC-reduction filtration by a method devised to achieve a postfiltration WBC count of <5 x 10(6). Residual WBC quantitation was performed by PCR in the central VATS laboratory by using frozen WBC-reduced RBC samples obtained at issue for transfusion. RESULTS A total of 1869 WBC-reduced RBC units were studied. Filtration practices varied within and between sites. There were significant differences in mean residual WBC counts at the 11 sites (p<0.001). Among the WBC-reduced RBC units, 0.8 percent exceeded 5 x 10(6) WBCs per unit, 8.3 percent exceeded 1 x 10(6) WBCs per unit, and 14.3 percent exceeded 5 x 10(5) WBCs per unit. CONCLUSION Residual WBCs in WBC-reduced RBC units vary within and between sites. WBC reduction was successful, in that over 99 percent and 91 percent of VATS WBC-reduced RBC units met US and EC thresholds, respectively. However, the small but measurable failure rate indicates that not every unit will meet these guidelines.
Presence of donor leukocytes following transfusion in neonates
Transfusion. 1996;36((9S):):39S.. Abstract No. S156.