The risk of thromboembolic events with early intravenous 2- and 4-g bolus dosing of tranexamic acid compared to placebo in patients with severe traumatic bleeding: A secondary analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial
BACKGROUND Screening for the risk of thromboembolism (TE) due to tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with severe traumatic injury has not been performed in randomized clinical trials. Our objective was to determine if TXA dose was independently-associated with thromboembolism. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS This is a secondary analysis of a single-center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing placebo to a 2-g or 4-g intravenous TXA bolus dose in trauma patients with severe injury. We used multivariable discrete-time Cox regression models to identify associations with risk for thromboembolic events within 30 days post-enrollment. Event curves were created using discrete-time Cox regression. RESULTS There were 50 patients in the placebo group, 49 in the 2-g, and 50 in the 4-g TXA group. In adjusted analyses for thromboembolism, a 2-g dose of TXA had an hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) of 3.20 (1.12-9.11) (p = .029), and a 4-g dose of TXA had an HR (95% CI) of 5.33 (1.94-14.63) (p = .001). Event curves demonstrated a higher probability of thromboembolism for both doses of TXA compared to placebo. Other parameters independently associated with thromboembolism include time from injury to TXA administration, body mass index, and total blood products transfused. DISCUSSION In patients with severe traumatic injury, there was a dose-dependent increase in the risk of at least one thromboembolic event with TXA. TXA should not be withheld, but thromboembolism screening should be considered for patients receiving a dose of at least 2-g TXA intravenously for traumatic hemorrhage.
Viscoelastic testing to assess the effects of rapid fibrinogen concentrate administration after cardiopulmonary bypass: insights from the REPLACE study
Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2021
Haemorrhage during and following surgery results in increased morbidity and mortality. Low plasma fibrinogen levels have been associated with increased blood loss and transfusion requirements. Fibrinogen supplementation has been shown to reduce bleeding in coagulopathic patients. This post hoc study evaluated fibrinogen repletion and pharmacokinetic data from the REPLACE study. One hundred and fifty-two adult patients undergoing elective aortic surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with defined bleeding of 60-250 g at first 5 min bleeding mass were included in the phase III trial. Patients were randomized to receive either fibrinogen concentrate (FCH) or placebo following CPB removal. Plasma fibrinogen levels and viscoelastic testing parameters (ROTEM-based FIBTEM and EXTEM assays) were measured before, during, and after study treatment administration. A mean dose of 6.3 g FCH was administered in the FCH group, with a median infusion duration of 2 min. Immediately following completion of FCH administration, a rapid increase in plasma fibrinogen levels to near baseline (median change from baseline -0.10 g/l) was seen in the FCH group but not in the placebo group (median change from baseline -1.29 g/l). FCH administration also caused an immediate increase in FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF) to 23 mm and improvements in EXTEM coagulation time and clot formation time by the end of infusion. There was a strong correlation between the plasma fibrinogen level and FIBTEM MCF. Treatment with high doses of FCH with a rapid infusion time resulted in immediate recovery to baseline levels of plasma fibrinogen and viscoelastic testing parameters.
The Immunologic Effect of Early Intravenous Two and Four Gram Bolus Dosing of Tranexamic Acid Compared to Placebo in Patients With Severe Traumatic Bleeding (TAMPITI): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Center Trial
Frontiers in immunology. 2020;11:2085
BACKGROUND The hemostatic properties of tranexamic acid (TXA) are well described, but the immunological effects of TXA administration after traumatic injury have not been thoroughly examined. We hypothesized TXA would reduce monocyte activation in bleeding trauma patients with severe injury. METHODS This was a single center, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing placebo to a 2 g or 4 g intravenous TXA bolus dose in trauma patients with severe injury. Fifty patients were randomized into each study group. The primary outcome was a reduction in monocyte activation as measured by human leukocyte antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR) expression on monocytes 72 h after TXA administration. Secondary outcomes included kinetic assessment of immune and hemostatic phenotypes within the 72 h window post-TXA administration. RESULTS The trial occurred between March 2016 and September 2017, when data collection ended. 149 patients were analyzed (placebo, n = 50; 2 g TXA, n = 49; 4 g TXA, n = 50). The fold change in HLA-DR expression on monocytes [reported as median (Q1-Q3)] from pre-TXA to 72 h post-TXA was similar between placebo [0.61 (0.51-0.82)], 2 g TXA [0.57 (0.47-0.75)], and 4 g TXA [0.57 (0.44-0.89)] study groups (p = 0.82). Neutrophil CD62L expression was reduced in the 4 g TXA group [fold change: 0.73 (0.63-0.97)] compared to the placebo group [0.97 (0.78-1.10)] at 24 h post-TXA (p = 0.034). The fold decrease in plasma IL-6 was significantly less in the 4 g TXA group [1.36 (0.87-2.42)] compared to the placebo group [0.46 (0.19-1.69)] at 72 h post-TXA (p = 0.028). There were no differences in frequencies of myeloid or lymphoid populations or in classical complement activation at any of the study time points. CONCLUSION In trauma patients with severe injury, 4 g intravenous bolus dosing of TXA has minimal immunomodulatory effects with respect to leukocyte phenotypes and circulating cytokine levels. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02535949.
Bleeding trauma patients with severe injury from the TAMPITI trial (n= 149).
Intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) 2 g bolus dose (n=49).
Intravenous tranexamic acid 4 g bolus dose (n= 50); Placebo (n= 50).
The median fold change in human leukocyte antigen-DR isotype (HLA-DR) expression on monocytes from pre-TXA to 72 h post-TXA was similar between placebo: 0.61, 2 g TXA: 0.57, and 4 g TXA: 0.57 study groups. Neutrophil CD62L expression was reduced in the 4 g TXA group (fold change: 0.73) compared to the placebo group: 0.97 at 24 h post-TXA. The fold decrease in plasma IL-6 was significantly less in the 4 g TXA group: 1.36 compared to the placebo group: 0.46 at 72 h post-TXA. There were no differences in frequencies of myeloid or lymphoid populations or in classical complement activation at any of the study time points.
Patient Blood Management: Recommendations From the 2018 Frankfurt Consensus Conference
Importance: Blood transfusion is one of the most frequently used therapies worldwide and is associated with benefits, risks, and costs. Objective: To develop a set of evidence-based recommendations for patient blood management (PBM) and for research. Evidence Review: The scientific committee developed 17 Population/Intervention/Comparison/Outcome (PICO) questions for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in adult patients in 3 areas: preoperative anemia (3 questions), RBC transfusion thresholds (11 questions), and implementation of PBM programs (3 questions). These questions guided the literature search in 4 biomedical databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Transfusion Evidence Library), searched from inception to January 2018. Meta-analyses were conducted with the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology and the Evidence-to-Decision framework by 3 panels including clinical and scientific experts, nurses, patient representatives, and methodologists, to develop clinical recommendations during a consensus conference in Frankfurt/Main, Germany, in April 2018. Findings: From 17607 literature citations associated with the 17 PICO questions, 145 studies, including 63 randomized clinical trials with 23143 patients and 82 observational studies with more than 4 million patients, were analyzed. For preoperative anemia, 4 clinical and 3 research recommendations were developed, including the strong recommendation to detect and manage anemia sufficiently early before major elective surgery. For RBC transfusion thresholds, 4 clinical and 6 research recommendations were developed, including 2 strong clinical recommendations for critically ill but clinically stable intensive care patients with or without septic shock (recommended threshold for RBC transfusion, hemoglobin concentration <7 g/dL) as well as for patients undergoing cardiac surgery (recommended threshold for RBC transfusion, hemoglobin concentration <7.5 g/dL). For implementation of PBM programs, 2 clinical and 3 research recommendations were developed, including recommendations to implement comprehensive PBM programs and to use electronic decision support systems (both conditional recommendations) to improve appropriate RBC utilization. Conclusions and Relevance: The 2018 PBM International Consensus Conference defined the current status of the PBM evidence base for practice and research purposes and established 10 clinical recommendations and 12 research recommendations for preoperative anemia, RBC transfusion thresholds for adults, and implementation of PBM programs. The relative paucity of strong evidence to answer many of the PICO questions supports the need for additional research and an international consensus for accepted definitions and hemoglobin thresholds, as well as clinically meaningful end points for multicenter trials.
Prothrombin Complex Concentrates for Perioperative Vitamin K Antagonist and Non-vitamin K Anticoagulant Reversal
Vitamin K antagonist therapy is associated with an increased bleeding risk, and clinicians often reverse anticoagulation in patients who require emergency surgical procedures. Current guidelines for rapid anticoagulation reversal for emergency surgery recommend four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate and vitamin K coadministration. The authors reviewed the current evidence on prothrombin complex concentrate treatment for vitamin K antagonist reversal in the perioperative setting, focusing on comparative studies and in the context of intracranial hemorrhage and cardiac surgery. The authors searched Cochrane Library and PubMed between January 2008 and December 2017 and retrieved 423 English-language papers, which they then screened for relevance to the perioperative setting; they identified 36 papers to include in this review. Prothrombin complex concentrate therapy was consistently shown to reduce international normalized ratio rapidly and control bleeding effectively. In comparative studies with plasma, prothrombin complex concentrate use was associated with a greater proportion of patients achieving target international normalized ratios rapidly, with improved hemostasis. No differences in thromboembolic event rates were seen between prothrombin complex concentrate and plasma, with prothrombin complex concentrate also demonstrating a lower risk of fluid overload events. Overall, the studies the authors reviewed support current recommendations favoring prothrombin complex concentrate therapy in patients requiring vitamin K antagonist reversal before emergency surgery.
Randomized evaluation of fibrinogen versus placebo in complex cardiovascular surgery: post hoc analysis and interpretation of phase III results
Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery. 2018
OBJECTIVES In a multicentre, randomized-controlled, phase III trial in complex cardiovascular surgery (Randomized Evaluation of Fibrinogen vs Placebo in Complex Cardiovascular Surgery: REPLACE), single-dose human fibrinogen concentrate (FCH) was associated with the transfusion of increased allogeneic blood products (ABPs) versus placebo. Post hoc analyses were performed to identify possible reasons for this result. METHODS We stratified REPLACE results by adherence to the transfusion algorithm, pretreatment fibrinogen level (≤2 g/l vs >2 g/l) and whether patients were among the first 3 treated at their centre. RESULTS Patients whose treatment was adherent with the transfusion algorithm [FCH, n = 47 (60.3%); placebo, n = 57 (77.0%); P = 0.036] received smaller quantities of ABPs than those with non-adherent treatment (P < 0.001). Among treatment-adherent patients with pretreatment plasma fibrinogen ≤2 g/l, greater reduction in 5-min bleeding mass was seen with FCH versus placebo (median -22.5 g vs -15.5 g; P = 0.071). Considering patients with the above conditions and not among the first 3 treated at their centre (FCH, n = 15; placebo, n = 22), FCH was associated with trends towards reduced transfusion of ABPs (median 2.0 vs 4.0 units; P = 0.573) and greater reduction in 5-min bleeding mass (median -21.0 g vs -9.5 g; P = 0.173). Differences from a preceding single-centre phase II study with positive outcomes included more patients with pretreatment fibrinogen >2 g/l and fewer patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair. CONCLUSIONS None of the patient stratifications provided a clear explanation for the lack of efficacy seen for FCH in the REPLACE trial versus the positive phase II outcomes. However, together, the 3 factors demonstrated trends favouring FCH. Less familiarity with the protocol and procedures and unavoidable differences in the study populations may explain the differences seen between the phase II study and REPLACE. Clinical trial registration: NCT01475669 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01475669; EudraCT trial no: 2011-002685-20.
Therapeutic plasma transfusion in bleeding patients: a systematic review
Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2017;124((4)):1268-1276
Plasma products, including fresh frozen plasma, are administered extensively in a variety of settings from massive transfusion to vitamin K antagonist reversal. Despite the widespread use of plasma as a hemostatic agent in bleeding patients, its effect in comparison with other available choices of hemostatic therapies is unclear. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, PubMed Central, and databases of ongoing trials for randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy and/or safety of therapeutic plasma as an intervention to treat bleeding patients compared with other interventions or placebo. Of 1243 unique publications retrieved in our initial search, no randomized controlled trials were identified. Four nonrandomized studies described the effect of therapeutic plasma in bleeding patients; however, data gathered from these studies did not allow for comparison with other therapeutic interventions primarily as a result of the low number of patients and the use of different (or lack of) comparators. We identified two ongoing trials investigating the efficacy and safety of therapeutic plasma, respectively; however, no data have been released as yet. Although plasma is used extensively in the treatment of bleeding patients, evidence from randomized controlled trials comparing its effect with those of other therapeutic interventions is currently lacking.
Randomized evaluation of fibrinogen vs placebo in complex cardiovascular surgery (REPLACE): a double-blind phase III study of haemostatic therapy
British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2016;117((1)):41-51.
BACKGROUND Single-dose human fibrinogen concentrate (FCH) might have haemostatic benefits in complex cardiovascular surgery. METHODS Patients undergoing elective aortic surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly assigned to receive FCH or placebo. Study medication was administered to patients with a 5 min bleeding mass of 60-250 g after separation from bypass and surgical haemostasis. A standardized algorithm for allogeneic blood product transfusion was followed if bleeding continued after study medication. RESULTS 519 patients from 34 centres were randomized, of whom 152 (29%) met inclusion criteria for study medication. Median (IQR) pretreatment 5 min bleeding mass was 107 (76-138) and 91 (71-112) g in the FCH and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.13). More allogeneic blood product units were administered during the first 24 h after FCH, 5.0 (2.0-11.0), when compared with placebo, 3.0 (0.0-7.0), P=0.026. Fewer patients avoided transfusion in the FCH group (15.4%) compared with placebo (28.4%), P=0.047. The FCH immediately increased plasma fibrinogen concentration and fibrin-based clot strength. Adverse event rates were comparable in each group. CONCLUSIONS Human fibrinogen concentrate was associated with increased allogeneic blood product transfusion, an unexpected finding contrary to previous studies. Human fibrinogen concentrate may not be effective in this setting when administered according to 5-minute bleeding mass. Low bleeding rates and normal-range plasma fibrinogen concentrations before study medication, and variability in adherence to the complex transfusion algorithm, may have contributed to these results. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no. NCT01475669; EudraCT trial no. 2011-002685-20.
Effects of red-cell storage duration on patients undergoing cardiac surgery
New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372((15):):1419-29.
BACKGROUND Some observational studies have reported that transfusion of red-cell units that have been stored for more than 2 to 3 weeks is associated with serious, even fatal, adverse events. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery may be especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of transfusion.METHODS We conducted a randomized trial at multiple sites from 2010 to 2014. Participants 12 years of age or older who were undergoing complex cardiac surgery and were likely to undergo transfusion of red cells were randomly assigned to receive leukocyte-reduced red cells stored for 10 days or less (shorter-term storage group) or for 21 days or more (longer-term storage group) for all intraoperative and postoperative transfusions. The primary outcome was the change in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS; range, 0 to 24, with higher scores indicating more severe organ dysfunction) from the preoperative score to the highest composite score through day 7 or the time of death or discharge.RESULTS The median storage time of red-cell units provided to the 1098 participants who received red-cell transfusion was 7 days in the shorter-term storage group and 28 days in the longer-term storage group. The mean change in MODS was an increase of 8.5 and 8.7 points, respectively (95% confidence interval for the difference, -0.6 to 0.3; P=0.44). The 7-day mortality was 2.8% in the shorter-term storage group and 2.0% in the longer-term storage group (P=0.43); 28-day mortality was 4.4% and 5.3%, respectively (P=0.57). Adverse events did not differ significantly between groups except that hyperbilirubinemia was more common in the longer-term storage group.CONCLUSIONS The duration of red-cell storage was not associated with significant differences in the change in MODS. We did not find that the transfusion of red cells stored for 10 days or less was superior to the transfusion of red cells stored for 21 days or more among patients 12 years of age or older who were undergoing complex cardiac surgery. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; RECESS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991341.).
Safe application of a restrictive transfusion protocol in moderate-risk patients undergoing cardiac operations
Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2014;97((5):):1630-5.
BACKGROUND Perioperative red blood cell transfusion is associated with adverse outcomes after cardiac operations. Although restrictive transfusion protocols have been developed, their safety and efficacy are not well demonstrated, and considerable variation in transfusion practice persists. We report our experience with a restrictive transfusion protocol. METHODS We analyzed the outcomes in 409 patients undergoing cardiac operations enrolled in a trial conducted at 30 centers worldwide. Blood products were administered on the basis of a transfusion algorithm applied across all centers, with a restrictive transfusion trigger of hemoglobin less than or equal to 6 g/dL. Transfusion was acceptable but not mandatory for hemoglobin 6 to 8 g/dL. For hemoglobin 8 to 10 g/dL, transfusion was acceptable only with evidence for end-organ ischemia. RESULTS The patient population was moderately complex, with 20.5% having combined procedures and 29.6% having nonelective operations. The mean EuroSCORE for the population was 4.3, which predicted a substantial incidence of morbidity and mortality. Actual outcomes were excellent, with observed mortality of 0.49% and rates of cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, and acute renal failure 1.2%, 6.1%, and 0.98%, respectively. The frequency of red blood cell transfusion was 33.7%, which varied significantly by center. Most transfusions (71.9%) were administered for hemoglobin 6 to 8 g/dL; 21.4% were administered for hemoglobin 8 to 10 g/dL with evidence for end-organ ischemia; 65.0% of patients avoided allogeneic transfusion altogether. CONCLUSIONS A restrictive transfusion protocol can be safely applied in the care of moderate-risk patients undergoing cardiac operations. This strategy has significant potential to reduce transfusion and resource utilization in these patients, standardize transfusion practices across institutions, and increase the safety of cardiac operations. Copyright 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.