Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for coronavirus disease 2019 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE Although the application of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is accumulating, the feasibility and safety of this therapy remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of VV-ECMO in the treatment of these patients. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases through November 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the included studies were screened, and meta-analysis was performed by R software (version 4.0.2). RESULTS Forty-two studies including 2037 COVID-19 patients supported with VV-ECMO due to ARDS were identified. The pooled analysis revealed that 30-, 60-, and 90-day mortality among patients were respectively 46% (95% CI 37%-57%, I(2) = 66%), 46% (95% CI 30%-70%, I(2) = 93%), and 49% (95% CI 43%-58%, I(2) = 52%), and the pooled incidence rate of in-hospital mortality, major bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and renal replacement therapy were respectively 35%, 39%, 11%, 40%, 15%, 21%, and 44%. CONCLUSION Although COVID-19 patients may have a higher risk of bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute kidney injury during ECMO therapy, the survival rate was more than half of the cases. Our data may support the application of VV-ECMO in COVID-19 patients.
Identification of Parameters Representative of Immune Dysfunction in Patients with Severe and Fatal COVID-19 Infection: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology. 2022;:1-33
Abnormal immunological indicators associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 have been reported in several observational studies. However, there are marked heterogeneities in patient characteristics and research methodologies in these studies. We aimed to provide an updated synthesis of the association between immune-related indicators and COVID-19 prognosis. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Willey, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and CNKI for studies reporting immunological and/or immune-related parameters, including hematological, inflammatory, coagulation, and biochemical variables, tested on hospital admission of COVID-19 patients with different severities and outcomes. A total of 145 studies were included in the current meta-analysis, with 26 immunological, 11 hematological, 5 inflammatory, 4 coagulation, and 10 biochemical variables reported. Of them, levels of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgG, and CD4(+) T/CD8(+) T cell ratio, WBC, neutrophil, platelet, ESR, CRP, ferritin, SAA, D-dimer, FIB, and LDH were significantly increased in severely ill patients or non-survivors. Moreover, non-severely ill patients or survivors presented significantly higher counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocyte/monocyte ratio, eosinophils, CD3(+) T,CD4(+)T and CD8(+)T cells, B cells, and NK cells. The currently updated meta-analysis primarily identified a hypercytokinemia profile with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 containing IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, reflected by decreased eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, NK cells, T cells, and their subtype CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and augmented inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and nonpulmonary organ injury, were marked features of patients with poor prognosis. Therefore, parameters of immune response dysfunction combined with inflammatory, coagulated, or nonpulmonary organ injury indicators may be more sensitive to predict severe patients and those non-survivors.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Treating renal anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogs is effective but has side effects. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the efficacy and safety of roxadustat in treating CKD-induced anemia. METHODS We searched publications online and conducted a meta-analysis and calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs for continuous data. RESULTS Of 110 articles, nine were included that contained 12 data sets and 11 randomized control trials on roxadustat. In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in hemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group (P<0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (P<0.00001, MD=6.92, 95% CI: 4.03, 11.89). However, in the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group. Hyperkalemia may be a side effect of roxadustat. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat elevated the serum Hb levels in a manner similar to that observed for ESAs. Roxadustat raised the Hb levels more significantly than the placebo and showed a higher Hb response rate than the placebo group in NDD patients. Roxadustat is a safe and effective drug for anemia in CKD patients.
Patients with chronic kidney disease-induced anaemia (9 studies).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) or erythropoietin analogues or placebo.
In the non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) high-dose/low-dose subgroups, the change in haemoglobin (Hb) levels was significantly higher in the roxadustat group than in the placebo group. The Hb response rate of the roxadustat is higher in the NDD subgroup than in the placebo group (MD=6.92). In the dialysis-dependent subgroup, there was no significant difference in the change in Hb levels or the Hb response rate between the roxadustat and ESA groups. There was no change in the mortality in the roxadustat group compared to that in the placebo/ESA group.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review
International urology and nephrology. 2021
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication for patients with kidney disease. Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), which is a newly approved oral drug for anemia. We performed this study to build evidence regarding efficacy and safety of roxadustat in kidney disease patients with or without dialysis. METHODS We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception to July 20, 2020. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared roxadustat with placebo or other therapies in the treatment of anemia in kidney disease patients were included. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled in a meta-analysis model using RevMan5.3 and stata13.0 software. RESULTS Eight RCTs with 1010 patients were included in our analysis. We found that roxadustat significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) level (1.10 g/dL, 95% CI [0.52 g/dL, 1.67 g/dL], p = 0.0002), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (58.71 µg/dL, 95% CI [44.10 µg/dL, 73.32 µg/dL], p < 0.00001), iron level (9.28 µg/dL, 95% CI [0.11 µg/dL, 18.45 µg/dL], p = 0.05) compared with control group in kidney disease patients. In addition, our result showed that a significant reduction in hepcidin level (- 31.96 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 35.05 ng/mL, - 28.87 ng/mL], p < 0.00001), ferritin (- 44.82 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 64.42 ng/mL, - 25.23 ng/mL], p < 0.00001) was associated with roxadustat. No difference was found between roxadustat and control group in terms of oral iron supplementation, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), infection, myocardial infraction, stroke, heart failure and death. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat has higher mean Hb level than placebo or EPO. Due to the short follow-up period and the lack of critical data, more RCTs are needed to prove long-term safety and effectiveness of roxadustat in the future.
Efficacy and safety of blood purification in the treatment of deep burns: A systematic review and meta-analysis
INTRODUCTION This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review and evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies examining the efficacy and safety of blood purification in the treatment of patients with deep burns. METHODS The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases and relevant references were systematically searched for RCTs and cohort studies published until the end of September 2020 to investigate the potential of blood purification in improving the prognosis of severely burned patients. The primary outcome of this systematic review was overall patient mortality; secondary outcomes included the incidence of sepsis and infection prevention (vital signs and routine blood tests). RESULTS A total of 6 RCTs and 1 cohort study were included, with a total of 538 burn patients (274 patients who received blood purification and 264 control patients). Compared with patients who received conventional treatment, those treated with blood purification displayed significant 2-day reduction in mortality and sepsis with relative risks of 0.62 and 0.41, respectively (95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.74-0.82 and 0.25-0.67, respectively; P < .05). In terms of vital signs and blood biochemistry, the respiratory rates and blood urea nitrogen levels of patients in the blood purification group 3 days post-treatment were significantly higher than those in the control group (randomized standard deviations (SMDs), 0.78 and 0.77, respectively; 95% CIs, 0.33-1.23 and 1.22-0.31, respectively; P < .05). However, there were no significant differences between groups on day 3 with regard to temperature (P = .32), heart rate (P = .26), white blood cell count (P = .54), or neutrophil count (P = .74), potentially owing to the small sample size or the relatively short intervention time. Heterogeneous differences existed between the groups with respect to blood urea nitrogen (SMD = -1.22; 95% CI, -2.16 to -0.40; P < .00001) and Cr (SMD = -3.13; 95% CI, -4.92 to -1.33; P < .00001) on day 7. No systematic adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS Blood purification treatment for deep burn patients can significantly reduce the mortality rate and the incidence of complications.
Combined Use of Tranexamic Acid and Rivaroxaban in Posterior/Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgeries Safely Reduces Blood Loss and Incidence of Thrombosis: Evidence From a Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Global spine journal. 2021;:21925682211024556
STUDY DESIGN A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. OBJECTIVES There are few studies examining the balance between preventing venous thrombus embolism (VTE) and reducing blood loss in posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF/TLIF) surgeries. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combine application of TXA and rivaroxaban in patients undergoing PLIF/TLIF and explore relevant factors related to blood loss and VTE. METHODS Patients in group A which was the control group received 0.9% NaCl solution intravenously. Group B was treated by an intravenous injection of 2 g tranexamic acid (TXA) and the local use of 1 g intraoperatively. Group C was treated the same as group B intraoperatively, and they received 10 mg rivaroxaban qd treatment postoperatively. Eligible patients with an Autar score ≤ 10 were randomly assigned to group A or group B. Patients with an Autar score >10 were allocated into group C. RESULTS The intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage were lower in groups B and C than in group A (P < .001). The blood transfusion rate in group B was lower than that in group A (P < .001), while the incidence of VTE in group C was lower (P < .001). Four factors were found to be positively correlated with obvious total blood loss (P < .05). The data showed that 5 factors were correlated with the development of a thrombus (P < .1). CONCLUSIONS The combination of TXA and rivaroxaban in PLIF/TLIF patients is safe and effective in reducing D-dimer levels associated with VTE and reducing blood loss.
Is there an association between intravenous immunoglobulin resistance and coronary artery lesion in Kawasaki disease?-Current evidence based on a meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(3):e0248812
BACKGROUND Coronary artery lesion (CAL) caused by Kawasaki disease (KD) is a leading cause of acquired heart disease in children. Initial treatment of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) can reduce the incidence of CAL. Although most of the current studies have shown a certain correlation between CAL and IVIG resistance, the conclusions are not completely consistent. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the association between IVIG resistance and CAL in KD. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure through April 21, 2020 were searched to detect relevant studies. Data analysis was performed with STATA 15.1. RESULTS A total of 53 relevant studies were eligible to this analysis, including 30312 KD patients, of which 4750 were IVIG resistance and 25562 were responders. There was a significant difference found between IVIG resistance and IVIG response groups in the incidence of CAL (P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR), 3.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) (3.18, 4.75)). The heterogeneity test results showed that the I2 value was 74.8%. The meta-regression analysis showed that the study regions might be the sources of heterogeneity. The subgroup analysis suggested that the incidence of CAL in the IVIG resistance group was still higher than that in the IVIG response group under different regions, IVIG resistance diagnostic criteria, CAL diagnostic criteria, and study types. Meanwhile, the sensitivity analysis did not find any significant impact from every single study. CONCLUSIONS This is the first meta-analysis to reveal the incidence of CAL was associated with IVIG resistance in KD patients. Further well-designed studies with uniform criteria are needed to evaluate the incidence of CAL in IVIG resistant patients.
Effects of Tranexamic Acid on Bleeding in Pediatric Surgeries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in surgery. 2021;8:759937
Background: Major pediatric surgeries can cause severe intraoperative blood loss. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid (TXA) in pediatric surgeries. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from the conception to March 31, 2021 to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of TXA in pediatric surgeries. Two reviewers choosed studies, evaluated quality, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias independently. Mean difference (MD) was calculated as the summary statistic for continuous data. We used a random-effects model to measure mean effects. Data were generated from the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) using RevMan 5.3 software. Primary outcomes included intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion as well as fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion. Results: Fifteen studies enrolling 1,332 patients were included in this study. The pooled outcomes demonstrated that TXA was associated with a decreased intraoperative (MD = -1.57 mL/kg, 95% CI, -2.54 to -0.60, P = 0.002) and postoperative (MD = -7.85 mL/kg, 95% CI, -10.52 to -5.19, P < 0.001) blood loss, a decreased intraoperative (MD = -7.08 mL/kg, 95% CI, -8.01 to -6.16, P < 0.001) and postoperative (MD = -5.30 mL/kg, 95% CI, -6.89 to -3.70, P < 0.001) RBC transfusion, as well as a decreased intraoperative (MD = -2.74 mL/kg, 95% CI, -4.54 to -0.94, P = 0.003) and postoperative (MD = -6.09 mL/kg, 95% CI, -8.26 to -3.91, P < 0.001) FFP transfusion in pediatric surgeries. However, no significant difference was noted between two groups in duration of surgery (MD = -12.51 min, 95% CI -36.65 to 11.63, P = 0.31). Outcomes of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and the duration of surgery in included studies were not pooled due to the high heterogeneity. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated that TXA was beneficial for bleeding in pediatric surgeries.
Intravenous tranexamic acid reduce postoperative drainage and pain after open elbow arthrolysis: A randomized controlled trial
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Open elbow arthrolysis (OEA), which has become an established treatment for post-traumatic elbow stiffness (PTES), requires complete release of contracture tissue and wide excision of ectopic bone, which results in extensive bleeding. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) on postoperative drainage, calculated blood loss and early clinical outcomes in patients undergoing OEA. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial including 96 patients undergoing OEA was undertaken. Patients received intravenously either 100 mL saline (placebo group, n = 48), or 100 mL saline plus 1 g TXA (TXA group, n = 48) before skin incision. The primary outcome was the drainage volume on postoperative day (POD) 1 to 3. Secondary outcomes included the calculated blood loss, elbow pain score measured by Visual Analog Scale (VAS), elbow function valued by Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), and rate of complications after OEA. RESULTS Mean total postoperative drainage volume (TXA group: 182 mL vs. placebo group: 214 mL, p = 0.003) and mean calculated total blood loss (TXA group: 582 mL vs. placebo group: 657 mL, p = 0.004) were significantly lower in the TXA group. No transfusions were necessary in either group. Mean VAS pain scores in elbow motion showed marked differences between both groups on POD 1 (TXA: 5 vs. placebo: 6, p = 0.003) and POD 2 (TXA: 4 vs. placebo: 5, p = 0.023), but not in other postoperative time points. No differences were detected in complications, such as pin-related infection, hematoma, new or exacerbation of ulnar nerve symptoms, and recurrent heterotopic ossification. At the 6-month follow-up, no statistical differences were found between the two groups with respect to the elbow functions including range of motion, VAS score and MEPS. CONCLUSION Intravenous administration of TXA significantly decreased the postoperative drainage volume and the total estimated blood loss, and alleviated the elbow pain with motion during early postoperative days in patients undergoing OEA. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level I; Randomized Controlled Trial; Treatment Study.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Has Better Results for Retear Rate, Pain, and Outcome Than Platelet-Rich Fibrin After Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2021
PURPOSE The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature to ascertain whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) improved patient outcomes in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS Two independent reviewers performed the literature search based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, with a third author resolving any discrepancies. RCTs comparing PRP or PRF to a control in rotator cuff repair were included. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Clinical outcomes were compared using the risk ratio for dichotomous variables and the mean difference for continuous variables. A P-value <0.05 was deemed statistically significant. RESULTS Twenty-three RCTs with 1440 patients were included in this review. PRP resulted in significantly decreased rates of retear (15.9% vs 29.0%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Significant results in favor of PRP based on the Constant score (83.9 vs 81.2, respectively; P = 0.0006); the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score (31.1 vs 30.2, respectively; P < 0.00001); the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score (87.3 vs 84.5, respectively; P = 0.04); and the visual analog scale score (1.3 vs 1.6, respectively; P = 0.01) were noted compared to the control. PRF only resulted in an improved Constant score (80.1 vs 80.0, respectively; P = 0.04) compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS The current evidence shows that using PRP in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair can improve pain levels and functional outcome scores while reducing the retear rate after surgery. PRF injection, on the other hand, only improves the Constant score.