Potentially effective drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 or MIS-C in children: a systematic review
European journal of pediatrics. 2022;:1-12
The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using potential drugs: remdesivir and glucocorticoid in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating MIS-C. We searched seven databases, three preprint platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google from December 1, 2019, to August 5, 2021, to collect evidence of remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and IVIG which were used in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. A total of nine cohort studies and one case series study were included in this systematic review. In terms of remdesivir, the meta-analysis of single-arm cohort studies have shown that after the treatment, 54.7% (95%CI, 10.3 to 99.1%) experienced adverse events, 5.6% (95%CI, 1.2 to 10.1%) died, and 27.0% (95%CI, 0 to 73.0%) needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or invasive mechanical ventilation. As for glucocorticoids, the results of the meta-analysis showed that the fixed-effect summary odds ratio for the association with mortality was 2.79 (95%CI, 0.13 to 60.87), and the mechanical ventilation rate was 3.12 (95%CI, 0.80 to 12.08) for glucocorticoids compared with the control group. In terms of IVIG, most of the included cohort studies showed that for MIS-C patients with more severe clinical symptoms, IVIG combined with methylprednisolone could achieve better clinical efficacy than IVIG alone.Conclusions: Overall, the current evidence in the included studies is insignificant and of low quality. It is recommended to conduct high-quality randomized controlled trials of remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C to provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines. What is Known: • The efficacy and safety of using potential drugs such as remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19/MIS-C are unclear. What is New: • Overall, the current evidence cannot adequately demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of using remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. • We are calling for the publication of high-quality clinical trials and provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines.
A Novel Risk Prediction Model for Severe Acute Kidney Injury in Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Fluid Resuscitation
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2022;9:840611
BACKGROUND To develop a risk prediction model for the occurrence of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients receiving fluid resuscitation. METHODS We conducted a secondary analysis of the Crystalloid vs. Hydroxyethyl Starch Trial (CHEST) trial, a blinded randomized controlled trial that enrolled ICU patients who received intravenous fluid resuscitation. The primary outcome was the first event in a composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine and/or treatment with renal replacement treatment (RRT) within 28 days of randomization. The final model developed using multivariable logistic regression with backwards elimination was validated internally and then translated into a predictive equation. RESULTS Six thousand seven hundred twenty-seven ICU participants were studied, among whom 745 developed the study outcome. The final model having six variables, including admission diagnosis of sepsis, illness severity score, mechanical ventilation, tachycardia, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and emergency admission. The model had good discrimination (c-statistic = 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.697-0.736) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, χ(2) = 14.4, p = 0.07) for the composite outcome, with a c-statistic after internal bootstrapping validation of 0.72, which revealed a low degree of over-fitting. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 58.8 and 89.1%, respectively. The decision curve analysis indicates a net benefit in prediction of severe AKI using the model across a range of threshold probabilities between 5 and 35%. CONCLUSIONS Our model, using readily available clinical variables to identify ICU patients at high risk of severe AKI achieved good predictive performance in a clinically relevant population.
A predictive model for blood transfusion during liver resection
European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2022
BACKGROUND A predictive model that can identify patients who are at increased risk of intraoperative blood transfusion could guide preoperative transfusion risk counseling, optimize health care resources, and reduce medical costs. Although previous studies have identified some predictors for particular populations, there is currently no existing model that uses preoperative variables to accurately predict blood transfusion during surgery, which could help anesthesiologists optimize intraoperative anesthetic management. METHODS We collected data from 582 patients who underwent elective liver resection at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020. The data set was then randomly divided into a training set (n = 410) and a validation set (n = 172) at a 7:3 ratio. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operating regression model was used to select the optimal feature, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to construct the transfusion risk model. The concordance index (C-index) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability, and the calibration ability was assessed with calibration curves. In addition, we used decision curve analysis (DCA) to estimate the clinical application value. For external validation, the test set data were employed. RESULTS The final model had 8 predictor variables for intraoperative blood transfusion, which included the following: preoperative hemoglobin level, preoperative prothrombin time >14 s, preoperative total bilirubin >21 μmol/L, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis, maximum lesion diameter >5 cm, macrovascular invasion, and previous abdominal surgery. The model showed a C-index of 0.834 (95% confidence interval, 0.789-0.879) for the training set and 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.766-0.896) for the validation set. The AUCs were 0.834 and 0.831 for the training and validation sets, respectively. The calibration curve showed that our model had good consistency between the predictions and observations. The DCA demonstrated that the transfusion nomogram was reliable for clinical applications when an intervention was decided at the possible threshold across 1%-99% for the training set. CONCLUSION We developed a predictive model with excellent accuracy and discrimination ability that can help identify those patients at higher odds of intraoperative blood transfusion. This tool may help guide preoperative counseling regarding transfusion risk, optimize health care resources, reduce medical costs, and optimize anesthetic management during surgery.
Comparison of efficacy and safety of different tourniquet applications in total knee arthroplasty: a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Annals of medicine. 2021;53(1):1816-1826
OBJECTIVE Total knee replacement (TKA) is an effective way to treat teratogenic and disabling knee diseases such as advanced osteoarthritis. Tourniquets are often used in TKA to reduce bleeding and to get a better visualization of the surgical field, while it is related to safety concerns. We did this network meta-analysis to comprehensively compare the efficacy and safety of various tourniquet application strategies. METHOD PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and WanFang Database were systematically searched from January 1990 to May 2020. A network meta-analysis with a frequentist framework was done to assess the relative efficacy and safety by comparing seven clinical important endpoints. RESULTS 38 eligible studies that assessed 3007 participants who underwent TKA were included in this network meta-analysis. Tourniquet inflation before osteotomy then deflation after wound closure effectively reduce perioperative bleeding (WMD compared with control group -234.66, 95% CI [-409.19 to -60.13]), while shortening the operation time (WMD -8.98, 95%CI [-14.07 to -3.88]) and reducing postoperative complications, including DVT (OR -0.58, 95%CI [-1.19 to 0.03]) and minor wound complications (OR -1.38, 95%CI [-3.00 to 0.25]). No difference was found in the late postoperative knee pain and function outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Using tourniquets during the entire operation can effectively reduce blood loss, but it also can cause many safety problems, including DVTs, wound oozing, delayed healing, and serious wound complications. Tourniquet inflation before osteotomy then deflation after wound closure effectively can reduce perioperative bleeding while shortening the operation time and reducing postoperative complications, so it could be the ideal tourniquet application strategy in TKA.Key messagesThis is the first study that comprehensively compared different tourniquet application strategies to evaluate their impact on postoperative recovery following TKA, and five clinically important endpoints were assessed in this study: perioperative blood loss, operation time, postoperative pain and function, and complications.We conclude that tourniquet inflation before osteotomy then deflation after wound closure could be the ideal tourniquet application strategy in TKA.
Surgical vs. Conservative Management for Lobar Intracerebral Hemorrhage, a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:742959
BACKGROUND Outcomes regarding the conventional surgical and conservative treatment for the lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have not been previously compared. The current meta-analysis was designed to review and compile the evidence regarding the management of patients with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS Online electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar, were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Studies were selected on the basis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Trials with CT-confirmed lobar intracerebral hemorrhage patients of which treatment regimen was started within 72 h following the stroke were included. Low quality trials were excluded. Death or dependence was defined as primary outcome and death at the end of the follow up was the secondary outcome. RESULTS One hundred five RCTs were screened and 96 articles were excluded on the basis of abstract. Nine articles were assessed for the eligibility and 7 trials were included that involved 1,102 patients. The Odds ratio (OR) for the primary outcome was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.62-1.04, p = 0.09) and for the secondary outcome was 0.79 (95%CI, 0.60-1.03, p = 0.09). CONCLUSION Our findings suggested that surgical treatments did not significantly improve the functional outcome as compared with the conservative medical management for patients with lobar ICH.
Patients with lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (7 studies, n= 1,102).
Surgical treatment, including: endoscopic surgery, open craniotomy, stereotactic aspiration, and endoscopic surgery plus stereotactic aspiration, (n= 552).
Conservative management, including non-surgical or pharmacological (n= 550).
The overall results showed a non-significant trend toward better prognosis in the surgical group (OR 0.80). No significant difference was observed for death at the end of the follow up between surgical and conservative medical management groups.
Efficacy of intrauterine Bakri balloon tamponade combined with ascending uterine artery ligation on postpartum hemorrhage
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(5):4995-5002
OBJECTIVE To observe the efficacy of intrauterine Bakri balloon tamponade (IBBT) combined with ascending uterine artery ligation (AUAL) in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) due to uterine inertia after cesarean section. METHODS A total of 92 patients with PPH due to uterine inertia after cesarean section were divided into a study group (n=46) and a control group (n=46) in accordance with the random number table. The control group was treated with IBBT alone, while the study group was treated with IBBT combined with AUAL. The clinical efficacies, hemorrhage, surgical duration, hospital stay, hemorrhage rate after removal of tamponade, recurrence rate of PPH, changes in coagulation function and quality of life were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The overall response rate (ORR) in the study group was 95.65%, remarkably higher than that of 80.43% in the control group (P < 0.05). The study group had a lesser amount of hemorrhage at 2 h and 24 h after surgery, a longer surgical duration, a shorter hospital stay, and lower hemorrhage rate after removal of tamponade and recurrence rate of PPH than the control group (P < 0.05). After treatment, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen in the study group were markedly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with those before treatment, the scores of quality of life in the two groups were elevated at 3 months after treatment (P < 0.05), and the scores of quality of life in the study group were higher than those in the control group at 3 months after treatment (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION IBBT combined with AUAL can effectively alleviate hemorrhage and improve coagulation function and quality of life of patients with PPH due to uterine inertia after cesarean section, exhibiting a definite efficacy and a high safety profile.
To Investigate the Effect of Glucocorticoids on Blood Loss during and after First Total Hip Arthroplasty and Its Safety Meta-Analysis
Journal of healthcare engineering. 2021;2021:9681129
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical glucocorticoids for total hip arthroplasty by meta-analysis. METHODS A computerized search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed English databases, as well as Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, vipu Chinese Science and Technology Journal Database, Wanfang database, and Chinese Knowledge Net Database, was performed to include all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding topical glucocorticoid therapy for postoperative bleeding after THA according to the inclusion criteria. The quality evaluation criteria of RCTs, as stated in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.5, were adopted for evaluation, and the meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS A total of 10 articles were included, including 1,112 patients: 566 in the topical glucocorticoid group and 546 in the control group. The transfusion rate was 8.43% for topical glucocorticoids and 30.05% for the control group (P < 0.001), and topical glucocorticoids reduced 317.89 ml total blood loss and 76.82 ml invisible blood loss, with statistically significant differences (P < 0.001). The amount of intraoperative blood loss was reduced by topical glucocorticoids, but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.83), and the postoperative HB value was increased by topical glucocorticoids, although the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The incidence of DVT and PE after topical glucocorticoid application (3.03%) was greater than that of the control group (2.40%), the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.54), and the incidence of infection after topical glucocorticoid application (3.03%) was greater than that of the control group (2.40%). The difference was not statistically significant (P=0.39). CONCLUSIONS Topical glucocorticoids can reduce the transfusion rate and blood loss in THA patients without increasing their risk of thrombosis.
Tranexamic Acid in Craniomaxillofacial Surgery: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
Facial plastic surgery & aesthetic medicine. 2021
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing blood loss and decreasing surgery duration in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Methods: The literature was searched systematically for all comparative studies of the effect of TXA on craniomaxillofacial surgery with placebo to evaluate the efficacy of TXA in craniomaxillofacial surgery. The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss, and secondary outcomes were postoperative hematocrit, postoperative hemoglobin, and operation duration. Results: This systematic review included 16 studies consisting of 958 patients. Meta-analysis revealed that compared with the placebo group, the TXA group showed a significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss of 139.81 mL (95% confidence interval, CI: -179.66 to -99.96 mL; p < 0.01), a shortening of the maxillary surgery duration of 15.48 min (95% CI: -21.03 to -9.92 min; p < 0.01), an elevation of the postoperative hemoglobin level of 0.74 mg/dL (95% CI: 0.42 to 1.07 mg/dL; p < 0.01), and a limited effect on increasing the postoperative hematocrit level of 1.77% (95% CI: 0.17 to 3.36; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The use of TXA in craniomaxillofacial surgery can effectively reduce intraoperative blood loss, maintain elevate postoperative hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and reduce the operation duration.
Ultra-early Blood Pressure Reduction Attenuates Hematoma Growth and Improves Outcome in Intracerebral Hemorrhage
Ann Neurol. 2020
OBJECTIVE To investigate whether intensive blood pressure treatment is associated with less hematoma growth and better outcome in ICH patients who received intravenous nicardipine treatment within 2 hrs after onset of symptoms. METHODS A post-hoc exploratory analysis of the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage 2 (ATACH-2) trial was performed. This was a multicenter, international, open-label randomized clinical trial in which patients with primary ICH were allocated to intensive versus standard blood pressure treatment with nicardipine within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. We have included 913 patients with complete imaging and follow-up data in the present analysis. RESULTS Among the 913 included patients, 354 (38.7%) had intravenous nicardipine treatment initiated within 2 hours. In this subgroup of patients treated within 2 hours, the frequency of ICH expansion was significantly lower in the intensive blood pressure reduction group as compared with standard treatment group (P = 0.02). Multivariable analysis showed that ultra-early intensive blood pressure treatment was associated with a decreased risk of hematoma growth (odds ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.92; P = 0.02), higher rate of functional independence (odds ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.28-3.68; P = 0.004) and good outcome (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01-2.83; P = 0.048) at 90 days. Ultra-early intensive blood pressure reduction was associated with a favorable shift in modified Rankin Scale score distribution at 3 months (p = 0.04). INTERPRETATION In a subgroup of ICH patients with elevated blood pressure given intravenous nicardipine within 2 hours of symptom onset, intensive blood pressure reduction was associated with reduced hematoma growth and improved functional outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The application of thromboelastography in risk stratification for selective thromboembolism prophylaxis after total joint arthroplasty in Chinese: a randomized controlled trial
Annals of palliative medicine. 2020
BACKGROUND As Asian populations, Chinese have a lower rate of high-risk gene mutations in venous thrombosis. Therefore, individual patient risk assessment, rather than a "blanket policy", is considered the best thromboembolism prophylaxis for Chinese. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of selective thromboembolism prophylaxis compared with conventional thromboembolism prophylaxis by risk stratification with thromboelastography (TEG) after joint arthroplasty in Chinese. METHODS Between August 2016 to August 2017, Chinese patients who underwent hip or knee arthroplasty were randomly divided into a selective anticoagulation group (SAG) and a conventional anticoagulation group (CAG). Participants and outcome assessors were blinded. In the SAG, an anticoagulant was used when TEG indicated hypercoagulability; while in the CAG, an anticoagulant was regularly used until one month after surgery. Outcome evaluation included effectiveness (defined as the incidence of VTE), and safety (defined as the incidence of bleeding events, poor wound healing, blood loss, and infection). RESULTS A total of 197 patients (79 in the SAG and 118 in the CAG) were included in the study. There was 1 case of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the SAG and 2 cases of DVT in the CAG, but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Hidden blood loss in the SAG was 707.4±539.8 mL and hidden blood loss in the CAG was 617±565.0 mL, respectively (P>0.05). No significant difference was observed in perioperative blood loss between the SAG and the CAG (1,024.9±597.9 and 1,139.3±620.9 mL, respectively). Volume of blood transfusion was 92.4±270.2 mL in the SAG and 224.6±416.3 mL in the CAG, respectively, while rate of transfusion was 13.9% in the SAG and 33.9% in the CAG, respectively, which were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In Chinese patients who underwent hip or knee arthroplasty, the efficacy of selective anticoagulation using TEG in risk stratification was comparable to that of conventional anticoagulation. Furthermore, the safety of selective anticoagulant prophylaxis was superior to that of conventional anticoagulant prophylaxis.