Safety and efficacy of thalidomide in patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia: a randomized clinical trial
Chen JM, Zhu WJ, Liu J, Wang GZ, Chen XQ, Tan Y, Xu WW, Qu LW, Li JY, Yang HJ, et al
Signal transduction and targeted therapy. 2021;6(1):405
Thalidomide induces γ-globin expression in erythroid progenitor cells, but its efficacy on patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT) remains unclear. In this phase 2, multi-center, randomized, double-blind clinical trial, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of thalidomide in TDT patients. A hundred patients of 14 years or older were randomly assigned to receive placebo or thalidomide for 12 weeks, followed by an extension phase of at least 36 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of hemoglobin (Hb) level in the patients. The secondary endpoints included the red blood cell (RBC) units transfused and adverse effects. In the placebo-controlled period, Hb concentrations in patients treated with thalidomide achieved a median elevation of 14.0 (range, 2.5 to 37.5) g/L, whereas Hb in patients treated with placebo did not significantly change. Within the 12 weeks, the mean RBC transfusion volume for patients treated with thalidomide and placebo was 5.4 ± 5.0 U and 10.3 ± 6.4 U, respectively (P < 0.001). Adverse events of drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, pyrexia, sore throat, and rash were more common with thalidomide than placebo. In the extension phase, treatment with thalidomide for 24 weeks resulted in a sustainable increase in Hb concentrations which reached 104.9 ± 19.0 g/L, without blood transfusion. Significant increase in Hb concentration and reduction in RBC transfusions were associated with non β0/β0 and HBS1L-MYB (rs9399137 C/T, C/C; rs4895441 A/G, G/G) genotypes. These results demonstrated that thalidomide is effective in patients with TDT.
Tranexamic Acid for Acute Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Guo Y, Guo XM, Li RL, Zhao K, Bao QJ, Yang JC, Zhang Q, Yang MF
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:761185
Background: The role of tranexamic acid (TXA) in preventing hematoma expansion (HE) in patients with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. We aim to investigate the efficacy and safety of TXA in acute spontaneous ICH with a particular focus on subgroups. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from CENTRAL, Clinicaltrials.gov, EMBASE, PubMed, and WHO ICTRP. The primary outcome measurement was HE. The secondary outcome measurements included 3-month poor functional outcome (PFO), 3-month mortality, and major thromboembolic events (MTE). We conducted subgroup analysis according to the CT markers of HE (standard-risk population and high-risk population) and the time from onset to randomization (>4.5 and ≤4.5 h). Results: We identified seven studies (representing five RCTs) involving 2,650 participants. Compared with placebo, TXA may reduce HE on subsequent imaging (odd ratio [OR] 0.825; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.692-0.984; p = 0.033; I(2) = 0%; GRADE moderate certainty). TXA and placebo arms did not differ in the rates of 3-month PFO, 3-month mortality, and MTE. Subgroup analysis indicated that TXA reduced the risk of HE in the high-risk population with CT markers of HE (OR 0.646; 95% CI 0.503-0.829; p = 0.001; I(2) = 0 %) and in patients who were treated within 4.5 h of symptom onset (OR 0.823; 95% CI 0.690-0.980; p = 0.029; I(2) = 0%), but this protective effect was not observed in the standard-risk population and patients who were treated over 4.5 h of symptom onset. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid (TXA) may decrease the risk of HE in patients with acute spontaneous ICH. Importantly, the decreased risk was observed in patients who were treatable within 4.5 h and with a high risk of HE, but not in those who were treatable over 4.5 h and in standard-risk population. However, PFO or mortality at 3 months did not significantly differ between patients who received TXA and those who received placebo. TXA is safe for acute spontaneous ICH without increasing MTE.