A systematic review on efficacy of different types of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the management of lateral epicondylitis
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is reported as an effective treatment for lateral epicondylitis (LE). Theoretically, different types of PRP have different therapeutic effects. However, there is controversy on the effects of different types of PRP in the treatment of LE. PURPOSE To systematically compare the pain relief, functional improvement and successful rates on treatment of two different types of PRP, by reviewing and summarizing the data available in the current literature on LE after PRP injection. METHODS The PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of science were reviewed. A computerized literature search was performed for related studies published from inception to August 2021 by terms of lateral epicondylitis, tennis elbow, tendinopathy, lateral elbow pain, PRP. PRP involved in present study were divided into leukocyte-poor PRP and leukocyte-rich PRP groups according to different preparation methods. Outcomes of interest included characteristics of the subjects, types and preparations of PRP, clinical outcomes, successful rate and safety of treatment of short-term and long-term follow-up. RESULTS A total of 33 studies included 2420 LE patients. There were 19 studies with LP-PRP, 13 studies with LR-PRP and 1 study involved both LP-PRP and LR-PRP. Patients had significant improved clinical outcomes post-treatment compared to pre-treatment in both groups of PRP. The mean of VAS was ranged from 6.1 to 8.0 before the treatment, 1.5 to 4.0 at short-term and 0.6 to 3.3 at the long-term follow-up in LR-PRP group. The mean of VAS was ranged from 4.2 to 8.4 before the treatment, 1.6 to 5.9 at short-term and 0.7 to 2.7 in the long-term follow-up in LP-PRP group. The DASH score of LR-PRP and LP-PRP were ranged from 47.0 to 54.3 and 30.0 to 67.7 separately before the treatment and 20.0 to 22.0 and 5.5 to 19.0 separately at long-term follow-up. LR-PRP and LP-PRP groups reflected successful rate ranged from 70%-100% and 36%-100% respectively. The complication rate lower in LP-PRP group (3.9%) than LR-PRP group (6.4%), with the major complication was temporary pain after PRP treatment (P = 0.029). CONCLUSION PRP treatment demonstrated a significant improvement with pain relief and functional improvement on lateral epicondylitis regardless types of PRP. There was no significant difference between LR-PRP and LP-PRP in pain relief and functional improvement. The major complication was temporary pain after PRP injection and the complication rate in LP-PRP was lower than LR-PRP.
Prehospital synergy: Tranexamic acid and blood transfusion in patients at risk for hemorrhage
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND Growing evidence supports improved survival with prehospital blood products. Recent trials show a benefit of prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA) administration in select subgroups. Our objective was to determine if receiving prehospital packed red blood cells (pRBC) in addition to TXA improved survival in injured patients at risk of hemorrhage. METHODS We performed a secondary analysis of all scene patients from the STAAMP trial. Patients were randomized to prehospital TXA or placebo. Some participating EMS services utilized pRBC. Four resuscitation groups resulted: TXA, pRBC, pRBC+TXA, and neither. Our primary outcome was 30-day mortality and secondary outcome was 24-hour mortality. Cox regression tested the association between resuscitation group and mortality while adjusting for confounders. RESULTS A total of 763 patients were included. Patients receiving prehospital blood had higher injury severity scores in the pRBC (22 [10, 34]) and pRBC+TXA (22 [17, 36]) groups than the TXA (12 [5, 21]) and neither (10 [4, 20]) groups (p < 0.01). Mortality at 30 days was greatest in the pRBC+TXA and pRBC groups at 18.2% and 28.6% compared to the TXA only and neither groups at 6.6% and 7.4% respectively. Resuscitation with pRBC+TXA was associated with a 35% reduction in relative hazards of 30-day mortality compared to neither (HR 0.65; 95%CI 0.45-0.94, p = 0.02). No survival benefit was observed in 24-hour mortality for pRBC+TXA, but pRBC alone was associated with a 61% reduction in relative hazards of 24 h mortality compared to neither (HR 0.39; 95%CI 0.17-0.88, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS For injured patients at risk of hemorrhage, prehospital pRBC+TXA is associated with reduced 30-day mortality. Use of pRBC transfusion alone was associated with a reduction in early mortality. Potential synergy appeared only in longer term mortality and further work to investigate mechanisms of this therapeutic benefit is needed to optimize the prehospital resuscitation of trauma patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic, Level III.
Rigorous Assessment of Guidelines on COVID-19-Related Thrombotic or Thromboembolic Disease: Implications for Clinical Practice of Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:5513744
PURPOSE Severe COVID-19 patients were prone to develop venous thromboembolism. Unfortunately, to date, there is no evidence of any effective medications for thromboembolism in COVID-19. The management of the disease relies on symptomatic and supportive treatments, giving rise to a variety of guidelines. However, the quality of methodology and clinical recommendations remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched Medline, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, websites of international organizations and medical societies, and gray literature databases. Four well-trained appraisers independently evaluated the quality of eligible guidelines and extracted recommendations using well-recognized guideline appraisal tools. Furthermore, recommendations were extracted and reclassified according to a composite grading system. RESULTS The search identified 23 guidelines that offered 108 recommendations. Guidelines scored average on AGREE II criteria, with Scope and Purpose and Clarity of Presentation highest. Only five (22%) guidelines provided high-quality recommendations. The existed clinical recommendations were inconsistent in terms of prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of thromboembolic disease to some extent. CONCLUSION Current guidelines for COVID-19 thromboembolism are generally of low quality, and clinical recommendations on thromboembolism are principally supported by insufficient evidence. There is still an urgent need for more well-designed clinical trials as evidence to prevent adverse events and improve prognosis during COVID-19 treatment.
Clinical studies on platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy for chronic cutaneous ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Advances in wound care. 2021
SIGNIFICANCE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may be a potential drug for treatment of chronic refractory ulcers, which increase the risk of systemic infection and local canceration. However, the efficacy and safety of clinical application of PRP are still controversial. Thus, this study was aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of PRP in patients with chronic ulcers. Recent Advances: For this meta-analysis, Cochrane's Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched. Results were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary outcome was the proportion of completely healed chronic ulcers. CRITICAL ISSUES Seventeen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Compared with the control group, PRP significantly increased the fraction of healed ulcers (pooled RR =1.50; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.87; I2=47.8%). In autologous PRP (APRP) and homologous PRP (HPRP) subgroups, there were statistical differences between the control group vs. treatment subgroup (pooled RR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54, I2=25.7%; pooled RR=3.53, 95% CI 1.94 to 6.43, I2=0.0%, respectively). In terms of percent of chronic ulcers area healed, there was a statistically significant difference between the PRP-treated group vs. the control group (SMD=1.37, 95%CI=0.91 to 1.82, I2=22.1 %). As for PRP safety, there existed a statistically significant difference between the APRP subgroup and the HPRP subgroup, respectively (pooled RR=0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.98; I2=0.0%) and (pooled RR=4.12; 95% CI 1.55 to 10.96; I2=6.8%). FUTURE DIRECTIONS Our findings shows that PRP may be a beneficial treatment of chronic skin ulcers and that APRP may be much safer than HPRP.
Comparative efficacy and safety of topical hemostatic agents in primary total knee arthroplasty: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
BACKGROUND Topical hemostatic agents are commonly used for reducing perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirement in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), although the optimal option has yet to be defined. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical hemostatic agents and rank the best intervention using the network meta-analysis (NMA) method. METHODS We searched Web of science, PubMed, and Cochrane Library database up to April 2020, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on topical hemostatic agents in primary TKA. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Cochrane "risk of bias" tool. Direct and indirect comparisons were performed for the result of network meta-analysis followed by consistency test. RESULTS Thirty seven RCTs with 3792 patients were included in this NMA and the pooled results indicated that tranexamic acid plus diluted epinephrine (TXA+DEP) displayed the highest efficacy in reducing total blood loss, hemoglobin drop and transfusion requirement. None of the included treatments was found to increase risk of thromboembolic events compared to placebo. According to the results of ranking probabilities, TXA+DEP had the highest possibility to be the best topical hemostatic agent with regard to the greatest comparative efficacy and a relatively high safety level. CONCLUSION Current evidence supports that administration of TXA+DEP may be the optimal topical hemostatic agent to decrease blood loss and transfusion requirement in primary TKA. More direct studies that focused on the topical application of TXA+DEP versus other treatments are needed in the future.
Clinical Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Long-Bone Delayed Union and Nonunion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in medicine. 2021;8:771252
BACKGROUND More recently, there was a series of clinical studies focusing on local administration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in long-bone fracture patients suffering from delayed union and nonunion. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP injection for treatment of patients with long-bone delayed union and nonunion. METHODS Relevant clinical trials were selected by the main bibliographic databases, including Medline, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library, to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP for long-bone fracture patients diagnosed with delayed union or nonunion by two reviewers independently. The main outcomes included healing rate, healing duration, pain relief, functional outcome, and complications. RESULTS Finally, thirteen studies including four hundred and fifty-nine participants met the selection criteria and were included in this systematic review. These articles included three randomized controlled studies, one prospective study, and nine retrospective studies. 146 out of 155 (94.19%) patients treated with PRP during operation, and 144 out of 183 (78.69%) patients treated with PRP injection alone, exhibited bone consolidation. The healing rate of the PRP group (85.80%) was higher than that of the control group (60.76%). The mean bony union time of patients treated and untreated with PRP, were, respectively, 4.64 and 5.15 months. Four papers reported that PRP was effective in pain relief of patient with delayed union and nonunion. Complications, including small subcutaneous hematoma, subcutaneous swelling, and postoperative infection, were also reported in enrolled studies. CONCLUSIONS PRP is a promising alternative treatment for patients with long-bone delayed union and nonunion. PRP could successfully promote the healing rate and relieve the pain of patients with delayed union and nonunion. However, the long-term adverse side and functional outcome in application of PRP still need further large-scale trials and long-term follow-up. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION https://www.researchregistry.com/browse-the-registry#home/registrationdetails/61dbd2f837e948001e68d5c5/, The identifying number is research registry 7525.
The Efficacy and Safety of Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid for Perioperative Blood Management in Spinal Fusion Surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
World neurosurgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Perioperative blood loss is a major concern in spinal fusion surgery, which often requires blood transfusion. A large amount of perioperative blood loss might increase the risks of various perioperative complications. Recently, there has been a series of clinical studies focusing on the perioperative administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) in spinal fusion surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EACA in spinal fusion surgery. METHODS We systematically searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) up to April 2021. The perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion and complication data were extracted and analysed by RevMan Manager 5.3. RESULTS Finally, six randomized controlled studies, involving 398 patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery, were enrolled in this systematic review. Compared with the blank control group, the EACA group had significantly lower total perioperative blood loss, postoperative blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin, postoperative blood transfusion units, total blood transfusion units, and postoperative red blood cell transfusion units. Additionally, no significant differences were observed between the EACA group and control group in intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative blood transfusion units, intraoperative crystalloid administered, hospital stays, operative time, perioperative respiratory complications, and wound bleeding. CONCLUSIONS EACA in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery is effective in perioperative hemostasis without increasing the incidence of postoperative complications. However, the long-term adverse side of EACA in spinal fusion surgery still need more large-scale trials.
Colloid preloading versus crystalloid preloading to prevent hypotension after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Maternal hypotension is the most frequent complication of spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, and intravenous fluid preloading is a preventive measure. We aimed to assess the efficacy of colloids versus crystalloids for preloading to reduce the incidence of spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension and vasopressor requirement in healthy parturients during elective cesarean delivery. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify all studies published to June, 2019, through OVID and PubMed. We included randomized controlled trials, comparing colloid preloading with crystalloid preloading in women having spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Primary outcomes were the incidence of hypotension and vasopressor requirement. Secondary outcomes included nausea and/or vomiting, neonatal Apgar score, neonatal umbilical blood pH. We used standardized mean differences for expressing continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes. Random-effect model was performed to estimate the pooled risk ratios and standardized mean differences. RESULTS Thirty-three randomized controlled trials contributed data for this meta-analysis. Fewer women experienced hypotension in the colloid group compared with the crystalloid group (risk ratio: 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.82; 2566 women, 32 studies; P < .00001). The total ephedrine dose required was significantly lower with colloid preloading (standardized mean difference: -0.37, 95% CI: -0.64 to -0.09; 1472 women, 19 studies; P = .009). Colloid preloading was also associated with fewer phenylephrine requirement compared with crystalloid preloading (standardized mean difference: -0.54, 95% CI: -0.82 to -0.25; 169 women; P = .0002). The incidence of nausea and/or vomiting was significantly reduced with colloid preloading (risk ratio: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; 1601 women, 20 studies; P = .02). However, the incidence of 1-minute Apgar score < 7, umbilical artery pH < 7.2 and umbilical vein pH < 7.2 were not statistically different between groups. CONCLUSIONS Colloid preloading is superior to crystalloid preloading in reducing the incidence of hypotension induced by spinal anesthesia and vasopressor requirement in the healthy parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery.The PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018096402.
EXPRESS: Safety and Efficacy of Remote Ischemic Conditioning for the Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Trial
International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society. 2021;:17474930211006580
Background Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) can promote hematoma resolution, attenuate brain edema, and improve neurological recovery in animal models of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Aims This study aimed to evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of RIC in patients with ICH.Methods In this multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, 40 subjects with supratentorial ICH presenting within 24-48 hours of onset were randomly assigned to receive medical therapy plus RIC for consecutive 7 days or medical therapy alone. The primary safety outcome was neurological deterioration within 7 days of enrollment, and the primary efficacy outcome was the changes of hematoma volume on CT images. Other outcomes included hematoma resolution rate at 7 d ([hematoma volume at 7 d â hematoma volume at baseline]/hematoma volume at baseline), perihematomal edema (PHE), and functional outcome at 90 days. Results The mean age was 59.3Â±11.7 years and hematoma volume was 13.9Â±4.5 mL. No subjects experienced neurological deterioration within 7 days of enrollment, and no subject died or experienced RIC-associated adverse events during the study period. At baseline, the hematoma volumes were 14.19Â±5.07 mL in the control group and 13.55Â±3.99 mL in the RIC group, and they were 8.54Â±3.99 mL and 6.95Â±2.71 mL at 7 days after enrollment, respectively, not a significant difference (p>0.05 each). The hematoma resolution rate in the RIC group (49.25Â±9.17%) was significantly higher than in the control group (41.92Â±9.14%; MD, 7.3%; 95% CI, 1.51% to 13.16%; p=0.015). The absolute PHE volume was 17.27Â±8.34 mL in the control group and 12.92Â±7.30 mL in the RIC group at 7 days after enrollment, not a significant between-group difference (p=0.087), but the relative PHE in the RIC group (1.77Â±0.39) was significantly lower than in the control group (2.02Â±0.27; MD, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.39-0.47; p=0.023). At 90-day follow-up, 13 subjects (65%) in the RIC group and 12 subjects (60%) in the control group achieved favorable functional outcomes (mRS scoreâ¤3), not a significant between-group difference (p=0.744).Conclusions Repeated daily RIC for consecutive 7 days was safe and well-tolerated in patients with ICH, and it may be able to improve hematoma resolution rate and reduce relative PHE. However, effects RIC on the absolute hematoma and PHE volume and functional outcomes in this patient population need further investigations.Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03930940.
Early-TIPS Versus Current Standard Therapy for Acute Variceal Bleeding in Cirrhosis Patients: A Systemic Review With Meta-analysis
Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:603
Background: The survival of early placement (within 72h after admission) of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (early-TIPS) in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding (AVB) is controversial. Objectives: We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis to assess whether early-TIPS could improve survival in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding. Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library published before 25 June 2019 for eligible studies that compared early-TIPS with a combination of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and pharmacotherapy in the therapeutic effect in AVB patients. Results: A total of five studies with 1,754 participants were enrolled. The early-TIPS demonstrated a significant improvement in prevention of treatment failure (OR=0.11,95%CI=0.05-0.23), 6-weeks mortality (OR=0.24,95%CI=0.13-0.46), rebleeding within 6 weeks (OR=0.21,95%CI=0.12-0.36), rebleeding within 1 year (OR=0.16,95%CI=0.07-0.36), new or worsening ascites (OR=0.33,95%CI=0.21-0.53), except in encephalopathy (OR=1.29,95%CI=0.996-1.67). For 1-year mortality, a significant prior effect was also observed in early-TIPS (OR=0.64,95%CI=0.46-0.90), and the beneficial effect in Child-Pugh C patients (OR=0.35,95%CI=0.18-0.68) was equal to Child-Pugh B patients (OR=0.34,95%CI=0.25-0.58). No difference in liver transplantation and mortality caused by liver failure was observed. Conclusions: Early covered-TIPS could be recommended for the management of AVB patients in cirrhosis demonstrating a significant improvement in treatment failure, both short- and long-term mortality, rebleeding risk, and new or worsening ascites compared to standard therapy, especially for high-risk AVB patients. It will also apply to patients with Child-Pugh A until solutions to prevent hepatic encephalopathy in future research are found.