Association of Use of Tourniquets During Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Elderly Patients With Post-operative Pain and Return to Function
Frontiers in public health. 2022;10:825408
OBJECTIVE During total knee arthroplasty (TKA), tourniquet may negatively impact post-operative functional recovery. This study aimed at investigating the effects of tourniquet on pain and return to function. METHODS Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 15th, 2020. Search terms included; total knee arthroplasty, tourniquet, and randomized controlled trial. RCTs evaluating the efficacies of tourniquet during and after operation were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Effect estimates with 95% CIs were pooled using the random-effects model. Dichotomous data were calculated as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mean differences (MD) with 95% CI were used to measure the impact of consecutive results. Primary outcomes were the range of motion (ROM) and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. RESULTS Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 2,393 patients were included in this study. The mean age is 65.58 years old. Compared to no tourniquet group, the use of a tourniquet resulted in suppressed ROM on the 3rd post-operative day [MD, -4.67; (95% CI, -8.00 to -1.35)] and the 1st post-operative month [MD, -3.18; (95% CI, -5.92 to -0.44)]. Pain increased significantly when using tourniquets on the third day after surgery [MD, 0.39; (95% CI, -0.19 to 0.59)]. Moreover, tourniquets can reduce intra-operative blood loss [MD, -127.67; (95% CI, -186.83 to -68.50)], shorter operation time [MD, -3.73; (95% CI, -5.98 to -1.48)], lower transfusion rate [RR, 0.85; (95% CI, 0.73-1.00)], higher superficial wound infection rates RR, 2.43; [(5% CI, 1.04-5.67)] and higher all complication rates [RR, 1.98; (95% CI, 1.22-3.22)]. CONCLUSION Moderate certainty evidence shows that the use of a tourniquet was associated with an increased risk of higher superficial wound infection rates and all complication rates. Therefore, the findings did not support the routine use of a tourniquet during TKA.
[Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, and Positive Drug-Controlled Clinical Trial on Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage after Vaginal Delivery with Ergometrine Maleate]
Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition. 2022;53(2):316-320
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of using ergometrine maleate injection combined with oxytocin injection, with oxytocin injection as the control, to prevent postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. METHODS A total of 305 cases who underwent vaginal delivery between December 2018 and November 2019 in 16 hospitals across China were enrolled and included in the full analysis set (FAS) and the safety analysis set (SS). Among the 299 subjects who completed the trial, 277 were included in the per protocol set (PPS). The subjects were randomly assigned by 1∶1 ratio to two groups, 152 cases in Group A, the experimental group receiving oxytocin injection plus ergometrine injection, and 153 cases in Group B, the control group, receiving oxytocin injection. The difference in total bleeding volume at 2 h, 6 h and 24 h postpartum in the two groups was documented and compared. Other measures were also compared between the two groups, including the proportion of additional use of uterotonics and hemostatic drugs or other hemostatic measures 2 h and 24 h postpartum, the proportion of subjects needing blood transfusion, the time of placenta retention, proportion of subjects with prolonged hospital stay due to uterine asthenia, the vital signs, lab test indicators and the incidence of adverse reactions in the two groups. RESULTS The total bleeding volume at 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after delivery was significantly lower in the experimental group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the proportion of additional use of uterotonics and hemostatic drugs or other hemostatic measures 2 h and 24 h postpartum, the proportion of subjects needing blood transfusion and the time of placenta retention, heart rate, respiration, lab test indicators, or the incidence of adverse reaction (P>0.05). CONCLUSION Ergometrine maleate injection showed evident therapeutic efficacy in preventing hemorrhage after vaginal delivery, causing fewer adverse reactions and ensuring greater safety, and therefore, presenting promising prospects for clinical application.
Platelet-rich Plasma Injection Can Be a Viable Alternative to Corticosteroid Injection for Conservative Treatment of Rotator Cuff Disease: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2022
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to explore whether PRP injection can be a viable alternative to CS injection for conservative treatment of rotator cuff disease. METHODS The study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched for English-written randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared PRP and CS injections for patients with rotator cuff disease from January 1, 1990, to March 20, 2022. Two evaluators independently screened the literature, extracted data, and assessed the level of evidence and methodological quality of the enrolled studies. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.3.3 software. RESULTS Thirteen non-surgical RCTs with 725 patients were included. Compared with CS, PRP provided statistically worse short-term (＜2 months) changes (Δ) of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) assessment, Δ the Simple Shoulder Test (SST), Δ the Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaires but better medium-term (2 to 6 months) Δ DASH, long-term (≥ 6 months) Δ Constant-Murley Score (CMS), Δ ASES and Δ SST. No statistical differences regarding pain reduction were found between the two groups. PRP injections led to worse short-term Δ forward flexion, Δ internal rotation but better medium-term Δ forward flexion and Δ external rotation. PRP had significantly lower rates of postinjection failure (requests for a subsequent injection or surgical intervention prior to 12 months) than CS. No outcome reached the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). After sensitivity analyses by excluding studies with substantial clinical and/or methodological heterogeneity, PRP showed better medium-term Δ ASES, Δ VAS, and long-term Δ VAS which reached the MCID. CONCLUSIONS Without the drawbacks of CS injection, PRP injection is not worse than CS injection in pain relief and function recovery at any time point of the follow-up. PRP injection may reduce rates of subsequent injection or surgery, and might provide better improvement in pain and function in the medium- to long-term. PRP injection can be a viable alternative to CS injection for conservative treatment of rotator cuff disease. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review of Level I and II studies.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Has Better Results for Retear Rate, Pain, and Outcome Than Platelet-Rich Fibrin After Rotator Cuff Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2021
PURPOSE The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature to ascertain whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) improved patient outcomes in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. METHODS Two independent reviewers performed the literature search based on the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, with a third author resolving any discrepancies. RCTs comparing PRP or PRF to a control in rotator cuff repair were included. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Clinical outcomes were compared using the risk ratio for dichotomous variables and the mean difference for continuous variables. A P-value <0.05 was deemed statistically significant. RESULTS Twenty-three RCTs with 1440 patients were included in this review. PRP resulted in significantly decreased rates of retear (15.9% vs 29.0%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Significant results in favor of PRP based on the Constant score (83.9 vs 81.2, respectively; P = 0.0006); the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score (31.1 vs 30.2, respectively; P < 0.00001); the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score (87.3 vs 84.5, respectively; P = 0.04); and the visual analog scale score (1.3 vs 1.6, respectively; P = 0.01) were noted compared to the control. PRF only resulted in an improved Constant score (80.1 vs 80.0, respectively; P = 0.04) compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS The current evidence shows that using PRP in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair can improve pain levels and functional outcome scores while reducing the retear rate after surgery. PRF injection, on the other hand, only improves the Constant score.
Clinical Features and Therapeutic Effects of Anti-leucine-rich Glioma Inactivated 1 Encephalitis: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in neurology. 2021;12:791014
Background: Clinical presentations and treatment programs about anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis still remain incompletely understood. Objective: This study analyzed the clinical features and therapeutic effects of anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify published English and Chinese articles until April 2021. Data were extracted, analyzed, and recorded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: A total of 80 publications detailing 485 subjects matched our inclusion criteria. Short-term memory loss (75.22%), faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) (52.53%), other seizures excluding FBDS (68.48%), psychiatric symptoms (57.67%), and sleep disturbances (34.30%) were the most frequently described symptoms in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Hyponatremia (54.90%) was the most common hematologic examination change. The risk of incidence rate of malignant tumors was higher than in healthy people. The positive rate of anti-LGI1 in serum (99.79%) was higher than CSF (77.38%). Steroids (93.02%), IVIG (87.50%), and combined use (96.67%) all had a high remission rate in the initial visit. A total of 35 of 215 cases relapsed, of which 6/35 (17.14%) did not use first-line treatment, and 21 (60.00%) did not maintain long-term treatment. Plasma exchange (PE) could be combined in severe patients, immunosuppressant could be used for refractory patients or for recurrence and using an anti-epileptic drug to control seizures may benefit cognition. Conclusions: Short-term memory loss, FBDS, psychiatric symptoms, and hyponatremia were key features in identifying anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Serum and CSF antibody tests should be considered in diagnosis criteria. Steroids with IVIG should be recommended, PE was combined for use in severe patients, immunosuppressant therapy might improve outcomes if recurrence or progression occurred, and control seizures might benefit cognition. The useful ways to reduce relapse rate were early identification, clear diagnosis, rapid treatment, and maintaining long-term treatment. The follow-up advice was suggested according to the research of paraneoplastic syndrome, and concern about tumors was vital as well.
The Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Treatment of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head: A Systematic Review
Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020:2642439
Background: As a pathological process, osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is characterized by the avascularity of the femoral head, cellular necrosis, microfracture, and the collapse of the articular surface. Currently, critical treatment for early-stage ONFH is limited to core decompression. However, the efficacy of core decompression remains controversial. To improve the core decompression efficacy, regenerative techniques such as the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were proposed for early-stage ONFH. As a type of autologous plasma containing concentrations of platelets greater than the baseline, PRP plays an important role in tissue repair, regeneration, and the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the operation modes, mechanism, and efficacy of PRP for early-stage ONFH treatment. Methods: We searched for relevant studies in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases. By searching these electronic databases, the identification of either clinical or experimental studies evaluating PRP, MSC, core decompression, and ONFH was our goal. Results: Seventeen studies of PRP and avascular necrosis of the femoral head were evaluated in our review. Ten studies related to the possible mechanism of PRP for treating ONFH were reviewed. Seven studies of the operation modes of PRP in treating ONFH were identified. We reviewed the efficacy of PRP in treating ONFH systematically and made an attempt to compare the PRP operation modes in 7 studies and other operation modes in past studies for early-stage ONFH treatment. Conclusion: PRP treats ONFH mainly through three mechanisms: inducing angiogenesis and osteogenesis to accelerate bone healing, inhibiting inflammatory reactions in necrotic lesions, and preventing apoptosis induced by glucocorticoids. In addition, as an adjunctive therapy for core decompression, the use of PRP is recommended to improve the treatment of early-stage ONFH patients, especially when combined with stem cells and bone grafts, by inducing osteogenic activity and stimulating the differentiation of stem cells in necrotic lesions.
A new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke patients
BMC neurology. 2020;20(1):426
BACKGROUND A reliable scoring tool to detect the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke is warranted. The present study was designed to develop and validate a new nomogram for individualized prediction of the probability of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients treated with intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). METHODS We enrolled patients who suffered from acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with IV rt-PA treatment in our emergency green channel between August 2016 and July 2018. The main outcome was defined as any type of intracerebral hemorrhage according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II (ECASS II). All patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the primary cohort and the validation cohort. On the basis of multivariate logistic model, the predictive nomogram was generated. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated by Harrell's concordance index (C-index) and calibration plot. RESULTS A total of 194 patients with complete data were enrolled, of whom 131 comprised the primary cohort and 63 comprised the validation cohort, with HT rate 12.2, 9.5% respectively. The score of chronic disease scale (CDS), the global burden of cerebral small vascular disease (CSVD), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥ 13, and onset-to-treatment time (OTT) ≥ 180 were detected important determinants of ICH and included to construct the nomogram. The nomogram derived from the primary cohort for HT had C- Statistics of 0.9562 and the calibration plot revealed generally fit in predicting the risk of HT. Furthermore, we made a comparison between our new nomogram and several other risk-assessed scales for HT with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the results showed the nomogram model gave an area under curve of 0.9562 (95%CI, 0.9221-0.9904, P < 0.01) greater than HAT (Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis), SEDAN (blood Sugar, Early infarct and hyper Dense cerebral artery sign on non-contrast computed tomography, Age, and NIHSS) and SPAN-100 (Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS) scores. CONCLUSIONS This proposed nomogram based on the score of CDS, the global burden of CSVD, NIHSS score ≥ 13, and OTT ≥ 180 gives rise to a more accurate and more comprehensive prediction for HT in patients with ischemic stroke receiving IV rt-PA treatment.
Internal Iliac Artery Balloon Occlusion for Placenta Previa and Suspected Placenta Accreta: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Obstet Gynecol. 2020
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of intraoperative balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries in women with placenta previa and antenatally diagnosed placenta accreta. METHODS In this single-center, randomized controlled trial, women with placenta previa and antenatally suspected placenta accreta were randomly assigned to either the balloon occlusion group or to the control group. The perioperative management approach was similar for both groups, other than preoperative balloon catheter placement and intraoperative occlusion of bilateral internal iliac arteries. The primary outcome was the number of packed red blood cell (RBC) units transfused. With a two-sided alpha of 0.05 and a power of 0.8, a sample size of 48 women per group was calculated to detect a mean reduction of 2 units packed RBCs transfused with an expected SD of 3.5. RESULTS From August 2017 to July 2018, we randomized 50 eligible women to the balloon group and 50 to the control group. Demographic, obstetric, and placental imaging characteristics were similar between groups. The number of packed RBC units transfused was not significantly different between groups (5.3+/-5.3 in the occlusion group vs 4.7+/-5.4 in the control group, P=.54). Hospitalization costs and incidence of postoperative fever were significantly higher in the balloon group. No significant differences were found in other outcomes. CONCLUSION Intraoperative balloon occlusion of the internal iliac arteries did not reduce the number of packed RBC units transfused in women with placenta previa and antenatally suspected placenta accreta. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-IOR-17012244.
Early TIPS with covered stents versus standard treatment for acute variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: a randomised controlled trial
The lancet. Gastroenterology & hepatology. 2019
BACKGROUND The survival benefit of early placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding is controversial. We aimed to assess whether early TIPS improves survival in patients with advanced cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding. METHODS We did an investigator-initiated, open-label, randomised controlled trial at an academic hospital in China. Consecutive patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class B or C) and acute variceal bleeding who had been treated with vasoactive drugs plus endoscopic therapy were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive either early TIPS (done within 72 h after initial endoscopy [early TIPS group]) or standard treatment (vasoactive drugs continued to day 5, followed by propranolol plus endoscopic band ligation for the prevention of rebleeding, with TIPS as rescue therapy when needed [control group]). Randomisation was done by web-based randomisation system using a Pocock and Simon's minimisation method with Child-Pugh class (B vs C) and presence or absence of active bleeding as adjustment factors. The primary outcome was transplantation-free survival, analysed in the intention-to-treat population, excluding individuals subsequently found to be ineligible for enrolment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01370161, and is completed. FINDINGS From June 26, 2011, to Sept 30, 2017, 373 patients were screened and 132 patients were randomly assigned to the early TIPS group (n=86) or to the control group (n=46). After exclusion of three individuals subsequently found to be ineligible for enrolment (two patients in the early TIPS group with non-cirrhotic portal hypertension or hepatocellular carcinoma, and one patient in the control group due to non-cirrhotic portal hypertension), 84 patients in the early TIPS group and 45 patients in the control group were included in the intention-to-treat population. 15 (18%) patients in the early TIPS group and 15 (33%) in the control group died; two (2%) patients in the early TIPS group and one (2%) in the control group underwent liver transplantation. Transplantation-free survival was higher in the early TIPS group than in the control group (hazard ratio 0.50, 95% CI 0.25-0.98; p=0.04). Transplantation-free survival at 6 weeks was 99% (95% CI 97-100) in the early TIPS group compared with 84% (75-96; absolute risk difference 15% [95% CI 5-48]; p=0.02) and at 1 year was 86% (79-94) in the early TIPS group versus 73% (62-88) in the control group (absolute risk difference 13% [95% CI 2-28]; p=0.046). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the incidence of hepatic hydrothorax (two [2%] of 84 patients in the early TIPS group vs one [2%] of 45 in the control group; p=0.96), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (one [1%] vs three [7%]; p=0.12), hepatic encephalopathy (29 [35%] vs 16 [36%]; p=1.00), hepatorenal syndrome (four [5%] vs six [13%]; p=0.10), and hepatocellular carcinoma (four [5%] vs one [2%]; p=0.68). There was no significant difference in the number of patients who experienced other serious adverse events (ten [12%] vs 11 [24%]; p=0.07) or non-serious adverse events (21 [25%] vs 19 [42%]; p=0.05) between groups. INTERPRETATION Early TIPS with covered stents improved transplantation-free survival in selected patients with advanced cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding and should therefore be preferred to the current standard of care. FUNDING National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Key Technology R&D Program, Optimized Overall Project of Shaanxi Province, Boost Program of Xijing Hospital.
A prospective study of platelet-rich plasma as biological augmentation for acute achilles tendon rupture repair
Biomed Research International. 2016;2016:9364170.
Acute Achilles tendon rupture is one of the most common tendon injuries in adults. We hypothesized that Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) can be used as biological augmentation for surgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Our study is a prospective randomized controlled trial. Patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture undergoing surgical repair were randomly assigned into either control group or PRP group. End-to-end modified Krackow suture was performed in both groups. In the PRP group, PRP was injected into the paratenon sheath and around the ruptured tissue after the tendon was repaired. Postoperatively we evaluated isokinetic muscle strength at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, ankle ROM, calf circumference, Leppilahti score, and the SF-36 score were evaluated at 6, 12, and 24 months after operation. At 3 months, the PRP group had better isokinetic muscle. The PRP group also achieved higher SF-36 and Leppilahti scores at 6 and 12 months. At 24 months, the PRP group had an improved ankle range of motion compared to the control group. Our study results suggest that PRP can serve as a biological augmentation to acute Achilles tendon rupture repair and improves both short and midterm functional outcomes.