Convalescent plasma may not be an effective treatment for severe and critically ill covid-19 patients: A Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Heart & lung : the journal of critical care. 2022;53:51-60
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma treatment for severe and critically ill Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical improvement and mortality risk of convalescent plasma treatment in patients with severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS A literature search was conducted in the electronic databases for the randomized controlled studies about convalescent plasma therapy in severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients. Two reviewers independently extracted relevant data. The primary outcomes were clinical improvement and mortality risk of severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients that were therapied by convalescent plasma. RESULTS A total of 14 randomized controlled trials with 4543 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to control, no significant difference was observed for either clinical improvement (6 studies, RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.17, p = 0.16, moderate certainty) or mortality risk (14 studies, RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.03, p= 0.18, low certainty) in patients of convalescent plasma therapy group. CONCLUSION Convalescent plasma did not increase the clinical improvement or reduce the mortality risk in the severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients.
A systematic review on efficacy of different types of Platelet-Rich Plasma in the management of lateral epicondylitis
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is reported as an effective treatment for lateral epicondylitis (LE). Theoretically, different types of PRP have different therapeutic effects. However, there is controversy on the effects of different types of PRP in the treatment of LE. PURPOSE To systematically compare the pain relief, functional improvement and successful rates on treatment of two different types of PRP, by reviewing and summarizing the data available in the current literature on LE after PRP injection. METHODS The PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of science were reviewed. A computerized literature search was performed for related studies published from inception to August 2021 by terms of lateral epicondylitis, tennis elbow, tendinopathy, lateral elbow pain, PRP. PRP involved in present study were divided into leukocyte-poor PRP and leukocyte-rich PRP groups according to different preparation methods. Outcomes of interest included characteristics of the subjects, types and preparations of PRP, clinical outcomes, successful rate and safety of treatment of short-term and long-term follow-up. RESULTS A total of 33 studies included 2420 LE patients. There were 19 studies with LP-PRP, 13 studies with LR-PRP and 1 study involved both LP-PRP and LR-PRP. Patients had significant improved clinical outcomes post-treatment compared to pre-treatment in both groups of PRP. The mean of VAS was ranged from 6.1 to 8.0 before the treatment, 1.5 to 4.0 at short-term and 0.6 to 3.3 at the long-term follow-up in LR-PRP group. The mean of VAS was ranged from 4.2 to 8.4 before the treatment, 1.6 to 5.9 at short-term and 0.7 to 2.7 in the long-term follow-up in LP-PRP group. The DASH score of LR-PRP and LP-PRP were ranged from 47.0 to 54.3 and 30.0 to 67.7 separately before the treatment and 20.0 to 22.0 and 5.5 to 19.0 separately at long-term follow-up. LR-PRP and LP-PRP groups reflected successful rate ranged from 70%-100% and 36%-100% respectively. The complication rate lower in LP-PRP group (3.9%) than LR-PRP group (6.4%), with the major complication was temporary pain after PRP treatment (P = 0.029). CONCLUSION PRP treatment demonstrated a significant improvement with pain relief and functional improvement on lateral epicondylitis regardless types of PRP. There was no significant difference between LR-PRP and LP-PRP in pain relief and functional improvement. The major complication was temporary pain after PRP injection and the complication rate in LP-PRP was lower than LR-PRP.
The Statistical Fragility of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Rotator Cuff Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
The American journal of sports medicine. 2021;:363546521989976
BACKGROUND The practice of evidence-based medicine relies on objective data to guide clinical decision-making with specific statistical thresholds conveying study significance. PURPOSE To determine the utility of applying the fragility index (FI) and the fragility quotient (FQ) analysis to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the utilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in rotator cuff repairs (RCRs). STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS RCTs pertaining to the utilization of PRP in surgical RCRs published in 13 peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2020 were evaluated. The FI was determined by manipulating each reported outcome event until a reversal of significance was appreciated. The associated FQ was determined by dividing the FI by the sample size. RESULTS Of the 9746 studies screened, 19 RCTs were ultimately included for analysis. The overall FI incorporating all 19 RCTs was only 4, suggesting that the reversal of only 4 events is required to change study significance. The associated FQ was determined as 0.092. Of the 43 outcome events reporting lost to follow-up data, 13 (30.2%) represented lost to follow-up >4. CONCLUSION Our analysis suggests that RCTs evaluating PRP for surgical RCRs may lack statistical stability with only a few outcome events required to alter trial significance. Therefore, we recommend the reporting of an FI and an FQ in conjunction with P value analysis to carefully interpret the integrity of statistical stability in future comparative trials. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Clinical decisions are often informed by statistically significant results. Thus, a true understanding of the robustness of the statistical findings informing clinical decision-making is of critical importance.
Cumulative Evidence for the Association of Thrombosis and the Prognosis of COVID-19: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2021;8:819318
BACKGROUND Although thrombosis events have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the association between thrombosis and COVID-19-related critical status or risk of mortality in COVID-19 has been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE We conducted a meta-analysis of reports assessing the association between thrombosis and the prognosis of COVID-19. METHODS The EMBASE, Ovid-MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases were searched up to December 9, 2021, and additional studies were retrieved via manual searching. Studies were included if they reported the risk of COVID-19-related critical status or COVID-19-related mortality in relation to thrombosis. The related data were extracted by two authors independently, and a random effects model was conducted to pool the odds ratios (ORs). In addition, stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the association. RESULTS Among 6,686 initially identified studies, we included 25 studies published in 2020 and 2021, with a total of 332,915 patients according to predefined inclusion criteria. The associations between thrombosis and COVID-19-related mortality and COVID-19-related critical status were significant, with ORs of 2.61 (95% CI, 1.91-3.55, p < 0.05) and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.6-5.24, p < 0.05), respectively. The results were statistically significant and consistent in stratified analyses. CONCLUSIONS Thrombosis is associated with an increased risk of mortality and critical status induced by COVID-19. Further prospective studies with large sample sizes are required to establish whether these associations are causal by considering more confounders and to clarify their mechanisms.Observational studies cannot prove causality. However, autopsy studies show thrombosis events preceding COVID-19-related deaths. The results of this meta-analysis reported that thrombosis was associated with a 161% increased risk of mortality from COVID-19 and a 190% increased risk of COVID-19-related critical status. The type of thrombosis included in the original studies also seemed to be related to the results.
Combined Use of Tranexamic Acid and Rivaroxaban in Posterior/Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgeries Safely Reduces Blood Loss and Incidence of Thrombosis: Evidence From a Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Global spine journal. 2021;:21925682211024556
STUDY DESIGN A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. OBJECTIVES There are few studies examining the balance between preventing venous thrombus embolism (VTE) and reducing blood loss in posterior/transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF/TLIF) surgeries. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combine application of TXA and rivaroxaban in patients undergoing PLIF/TLIF and explore relevant factors related to blood loss and VTE. METHODS Patients in group A which was the control group received 0.9% NaCl solution intravenously. Group B was treated by an intravenous injection of 2 g tranexamic acid (TXA) and the local use of 1 g intraoperatively. Group C was treated the same as group B intraoperatively, and they received 10 mg rivaroxaban qd treatment postoperatively. Eligible patients with an Autar score ≤ 10 were randomly assigned to group A or group B. Patients with an Autar score >10 were allocated into group C. RESULTS The intraoperative blood loss and postoperative drainage were lower in groups B and C than in group A (P < .001). The blood transfusion rate in group B was lower than that in group A (P < .001), while the incidence of VTE in group C was lower (P < .001). Four factors were found to be positively correlated with obvious total blood loss (P < .05). The data showed that 5 factors were correlated with the development of a thrombus (P < .1). CONCLUSIONS The combination of TXA and rivaroxaban in PLIF/TLIF patients is safe and effective in reducing D-dimer levels associated with VTE and reducing blood loss.
Higher Efficacy of Infliximab than Immunoglobulin on Kawasaki Disease, a Meta-analysis
European journal of pharmacology. 2021;:173985
This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy and safety of infliximab as initial therapy for patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistant KD.Studies of infliximab in KD, published between January 2004 and December 2019, were curated from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 12.0. Of the 8 studies considered, 4 evaluated the effect of infliximab combined with IVIG as primary therapy in KD, and the remaining investigated the effect of infliximab in IVIG resistant patients. Infliximab was more effective than the control group, with the total summary odds ratio (OR) of 0.34 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.62). The treatment resistance of the infliximab group was lower than the IVIG group (0.36 [95% CI: 0.14-0.92]) when infliximab was combined with IVIG as the initial treatment. However, infliximab treatment for IVIG resistant KD was more effective than the IVIG group (0.28 [95% CI: 0.12-0.66]). There was no significant increase in the incidence of coronary artery lesions. The total summary OR for the incidence of coronary artery lesions and infliximab treatment was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.48-1.62). There was no statistically significant difference in adverse events (AEs) when compared between the groups (0.71 [95% CI: 0.44-1.16]).Infliximab combined with IVIG reduced treatment resistance in KD patients vs. conventional IVIG therapy. Infliximab improved clinical course in IVIG resistant KD patients. Infliximab treatment did not reduce the incidence of coronary artery lesions and did not show any significant increase in the incidence of AEs. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER CRD42020218554.
Efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in the treatment of thrombocytopenia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a meta-analysis and systematic review
Expert review of hematology. 2021;:1-8
Thrombocytopenia is a tough complication after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with elusive pathogenesis and lack of well-established therapies. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) have been used for thrombocytopenia post HSCT in recent years, but the outcomes remain debatable. We conducted this meta-analysis and systematic-review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TPO-RAs for platelet recovery after HSCT. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for studies on the application of TPO-RAs (eltrombopag and romiplostim) in the settings of primary or secondary thrombocytopenia after HSCT by 17 March 2021. Efficacy outcomes included response rate and survival rate, and adverse events were also evaluated. A total of 19 studies involving 378 patients were included. The pooled response rate was 73% (95%CI: 68-78%), which was significantly higher than recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) (27.8%). The pooled survival rate was 66% (95%CI: 54-77%), and infection was found to be the main cause of death. In addition, the pooled rate of adverse events was 3% (95%CI: 1-7%), with no severe adverse events reported. TPO-RAs could effectively and safely promote the recovery of platelets in patients after HSCT.
The effectiveness of infliximab for Kawasaki disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis
Translational pediatrics. 2021;10(5):1294-1306
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited illness that results in coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) and threatens children's health and lives. The therapeutic effects of single intravenous immunoglobulin gamma (IVIG) vs. infliximab (IFX) (with or without IVIG) in young children with KD remain unclear. Thus, we made a meta-analysis and systematic review, including all of the studies which have evaluated the effectiveness and safety of IFX and IVIG KD patients. METHODS The databases of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase websites were searched for articles appearing from inception until December 31, 2020. Clinical studies that compared IFX either as initial therapy plus IVIG or rescue therapy after IVIG (IFX group) failure compared with IVIG treatment alone (IVIG group) in treating KD patients were included. RESULTS The meta-analysis included nine studies characterizing 712 patients. The treatment response was significantly higher in the adjunctive IFX therapy group than in the IVIG therapy group [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; 95% CI: 1.52-4.59; P=0.0005]. Subgroup analysis, the effect of IFX therapy on treatment response is more effectiveness in the group of the high-risk KD patients than IVIG therapy (OR 6.07; 95% CI: 2.30-16.04; P=0.0003; random-effects model). Further analysis showed no difference in the improvement of CAAs in short-term follow-up between the two groups. However, adding IFX either as initial therapy or as additional therapy all showed an advantageous effect regarding the ∆Z score of the left anterior descending (LAD) (MD =0.29; 95% CI: 0.27-0.31; P<0.00001) and right coronary artery (RCA) (MD =0.24; 95% CI: 0.22-0.26; P<0.00001). Further, IFX exhibited significant effect on the treatment response compared with IVIG therapy in the Asian group (OR, 2.84; 95% CI: 1.51-5.36; P=0.001; random-effects model), and the beneficial effects of IFX were given without increasing the risk of AEs. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis emphasizes the importance of IFX on the treatment response in the high-risk KD patients. IFX may play a role in the Asian KD patients and prevention of progressive CAA, and does not increase the risk of AEs in KD patients.
Efficacy and toxicities of low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation for the treatment of laryngomalacia in neonates and infants: a prospective randomized controlled trial
Annals of translational medicine. 2020;8(21):1366
BACKGROUND Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in neonates and infants, and supraglottoplasty is the mainstay of surgical treatment. Although low-temperature plasma radiofrequency ablation (LTP-RFA) using coblation technology has been used for treating laryngomalacia, it is still lack of high-quality clinical evidence. Therefore, we conduct this prospective randomized study to clearly define the role of LTP-RFA for the treatment of laryngomalacia in neonates and infants. METHODS Between Jan 2017 and Dec 2019, a total of 89 children with laryngomalacia were included for analysis. All patients were initially stratified according to the severity of laryngomalacia. Patients with severe laryngomalacia were randomly assigned to receive LTP-RFA or traditionally surgical supraglottoplasty, while patients with moderate laryngomalacia were assigned to LTP-RFA or observation. The primary end point was the efficacy and toxicities of LTP-RFA by assessing the changes of clinical score and visual analogue scale (VAS) symptom score. The total score was the combination of clinical score with VAS score. RESULTS Of the 89 children, 40 children presented with severe laryngomalacia, and the remaining 49 children were diagnosed as moderate laryngomalacia. The median age was 68 days (range, 19 to 337 days). For children with severe laryngomalacia, our results showed that LTP-RFA treatment significantly reduced the operative time (5.55±1.66 vs. 18.7±5.31 min, P<0.001), length of hospital stay (6.71±1.15 vs. 7.95±1.55 days, P=0.008) and the amount of intraoperative hemorrhage (1.71±1.79 vs. 4.90±1.82, P<0.001) when compared to traditionally surgical supraglottoplasty, while the treatment efficacy was comparable between LTP-RFA and traditionally surgical supraglottoplasty in terms of changed total score (P=0.322), changed clinical score (P=0.135) and changed VAS symptom score (P=0.559). Additionally, for children with moderate laryngomalacia, LTP-RFA treatment significantly improved the symptom evaluated by total score (P<0.001), clinical score (P<0.001) and VAS symptom score (P<0.001) in comparison with the observation group. Post-operative pneumonia was observed in 10 patients. No surgical related death was reported. CONCLUSIONS The present study indicated that LTP-RFA was an effective treatment option for both severe and moderate laryngomalacia in neonates and infants with a low intraoperative complication. Long-term outcomes of LTP-RFA for laryngomalacia would be reported in further studies.
Intra-articular platelet-rich plasma combined with hyaluronic acid injection for knee osteoarthritis is superior to PRP or HA alone in inhibiting inflammation and improving pain and function
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2020
PURPOSE The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and explore the therapeutic mechanisms of PRP combined with HA as a treatment for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS In total, 122 knees were randomly divided into HA (34 knees), PRP (40 knees), and PRP+HA (48 knees) groups. Platelet densities in whole blood and PRP were examined using Wright-Giemsa staining. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Lequesne, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Lysholm scores and postoperative complications were evaluated. High-frequency color Doppler imaging was used to observe the synovium and cartilage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to quantify interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels in synovial fluid. RESULTS The platelet density in PRP was 5.13-times that in whole blood (P = .002). At 24 months, pain and function scores in the PRP+HA group were better than those in the HA and PRP alone groups (P(pain) = .000; P(function) = .000). At 6 and 12 months, synovial hyperplasia in the PRP and PRP+HA groups was improved (P < .05). After 6 and 12 months, the synovial peak systolic velocity (PSV), synovial end diastolic velocity (EDV), systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D) and resistance index (RI) were improved in the PRP+HA group (P < .05). Complications were highest in the PRP group (P = .008). After 6 and 12 months, IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 in the PRP and PRP+HA groups decreased (P < .05), with more apparent inhibition in the PRP+HA group (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS PRP combined with HA is more effective than PRP or HA alone at inhibiting synovial inflammation and can effectively improve pain and function and reduce adverse reactions. Its mechanism involves changes in the synovium and cytokine content.