Low-dose PPI to prevent bleeding after ESD: A multicenter randomized controlled study
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2021;136:111251
BACKGROUND Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in the prevention of gastric bleeding caused by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there is no consensus on the optimal regimen for these patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate whether intermittent use of low-dose PPI is sufficient to prevent post-ESD bleeding. METHODS This multicenter, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial was conducted at 9 hospitals in China. Consecutive eligible patients with a diagnosis of gastric mucosal lesions after ESD treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intermittent low-dose or continuous high-dose PPIs treatment. After three days, all patients administered orally esomeprazole 40 mg once a day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was post-ESD bleeding within 7 days. Analysis was done according to the intention-to-treat principle with the non-inferiority margin (Δ) of 5%. RESULTS 526 consecutive patients were assessed for eligibility from 30 September 2017 to 30 July 2019, of whom 414 were randomly assigned to low-dose (n = 209) or high-dose (n = 205) esomeprazole treatment group without dropouts within7 days. The total post-ESD bleeding is occurred in 13 (6.2 %, 95 % CI 3.3-9.6) of 209 within 7 days in the intermittent low-dose group, and 12 (5.9 %, 95 % CI 2.9-9.3) of 205 in the continuous high-dose group. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) was 0.4 % (-4.2, 4.9). One month after ESD, There are 44 patients (21.1 %, 95 % CI 15.8, 26.8) and 39 patients (19.0 % 95 % CI 13.7, 24.4) in scar stage respectively in low-dose group and high-dose group (P = 0.875).The hospital costs in the low-dose PPI group was lower than high -dose group (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION The intermittent use of low-dose PPIs is sufficient to prevent post-ESD bleeding. It might be applied in clinical practice to prevent post-ESD bleeding and reduce the costs related to PPIs.
Perioperative combined administration of tranexamic acid and dexamethasone in total knee arthroplasty-benefit versus harm?
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits and harm of combined administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) and dexamethasone (Dexa) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS A total of 88 consecutive patients undergoing TKA for knee osteoarthritis were stratified in 2 groups. All surgeries were performed under general anesthesia. Brief, patients in the TXA + Dexa group (n = 45) received 10 mg Dexa just after the anesthesia, and repeated at 24 hours after the surgery; and patients in the TXA group (n = 43) received 2 ml of normal saline solution at the same time. The measured outcomes were the C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) from preoperatively to postoperatively, and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), fatigue, range of motion (ROM), length of stay (LOS), and the analgesic and antiemetic rescue consumption RESULTS The level of CRP and IL-6 in the TXA + Dexa group were lower than that in the TXA group at 24 hours (P < .001, P < .001), 48 hours (P < .001, P < .001), and 72 hours (P < .001, P < .001) after the surgery. The pain scores in the TXA + Dexa group were lower during walking at 24 hours (P < .001), 48 hours (P < .001), and 72 hours (P < .001) and at rest at 24 hours (P = .022) after the surgery. Patients in the TXA + Dexa group had a lower nausea score, the incidence of PONV, fatigue, and the analgesic and antiemetic rescue consumption, and had a greater ROM than that in the TXA group. No significant differences were found in LOS and complications. CONCLUSION The combined administration of TXA + Dexa significantly reduced the level of postoperative CRP and IL-6, relieve postoperative pain, ameliorate the incidence of POVN, provide additional analgesic and antiemetic effects, reduce postoperative fatigue, and improve ROM, without increasing the risk of complications in primary TKA.
Immune checkpoint inhibitor related myasthenia gravis: single center experience and systematic review of the literature
Journal for immunotherapy of cancer. 2019;7(1):319
BACKGROUND Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare but life-threatening adverse event of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Given the limited evidence, data from a large cohort of patients is needed to aid in recognition and management of this fatal complication. METHODS We reviewed our institutional databases to identify patients who had cancer and MG in the setting of ICI. We systematically reviewed the literature through August 2018 to identify all similar reported patients. We collected data on clinical and diagnostic features, management, and outcomes of these cases. RESULTS Sixty-five patients were identified. Median age was 73 years; 42 (65%) were males, 31 (48%) had metastatic melanoma, and 13 (20%) had a preexisting MG before ICI initiation. Most patients received anti-PD-1 (82%). Sixty-three patients (97%) developed ICI-related MG (new onset or disease flare) after a median of 4 weeks (1 to 16 weeks) of ICI initiation. Twenty-four patients (37%) experienced concurrent myositis, and respiratory failure occurred in 29 (45%). ICI was discontinued in 61 patients (97%). Death was reported in 24 patients (38%); 15 (23%) due to MG complication. A better outcome was observed in patients who received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or plasmapheresis (PLEX) as first-line therapy than in those who received steroids alone (95% vs 63% improvement of MG symptoms, p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS MG is a life-threatening adverse event of acute onset and rapid progression after ICI initiation. Early use of IVIG or PLEX, regardless of initial symptoms severity, may lead to better outcomes than steroids alone. Our data suggest the need to reassess the current recommendations for management of ICI-related MG until prospective longitudinal studies are conducted to establish the ideal management approach for these patients.
Roxadustat Treatment for Anemia in Patients Undergoing Long-Term Dialysis
The New England journal of medicine. 2019
BACKGROUND Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that stimulates erythropoiesis and regulates iron metabolism. Additional data are needed regarding the effectiveness and safety of roxadustat as compared with standard therapy (epoetin alfa) for the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing dialysis. METHODS In a trial conducted in China, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) patients who had been undergoing dialysis and erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy with epoetin alfa for at least 6 weeks to receive roxadustat or epoetin alfa three times per week for 26 weeks. Parenteral iron was withheld except as rescue therapy. The primary end point was the mean change in hemoglobin level from baseline to the average level during weeks 23 through 27. Noninferiority of roxadustat would be established if the lower boundary of the two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference between the values in the roxadustat group and epoetin alfa group was greater than or equal to -1.0 g per deciliter. Patients in each group had doses adjusted to reach a hemoglobin level of 10.0 to 12.0 g per deciliter. Safety was assessed by analysis of adverse events and clinical laboratory values. RESULTS A total of 305 patients underwent randomization (204 in the roxadustat group and 101 in the epoetin alfa group), and 256 patients (162 and 94, respectively) completed the 26-week treatment period. The mean baseline hemoglobin level was 10.4 g per deciliter. Roxadustat led to a numerically greater mean (+/-SD) change in hemoglobin level from baseline to weeks 23 through 27 (0.7+/-1.1 g per deciliter) than epoetin alfa (0.5+/-1.0 g per deciliter) and was statistically noninferior (difference, 0.2+/-1.2 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02 to 0.5). As compared with epoetin alfa, roxadustat increased the transferrin level (difference, 0.43 g per liter; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.53), maintained the serum iron level (difference, 25 mug per deciliter; 95% CI, 17 to 33), and attenuated decreases in the transferrin saturation (difference, 4.2 percentage points; 95% CI, 1.5 to 6.9). At week 27, the decrease in total cholesterol was greater with roxadustat than with epoetin alfa (difference, -22 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, -29 to -16), as was the decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (difference, -18 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, -23 to -13). Roxadustat was associated with a mean reduction in hepcidin of 30.2 ng per milliliter (95% CI, -64.8 to -13.6), as compared with 2.3 ng per milliliter (95% CI, -51.6 to 6.2) in the epoetin alfa group. Hyperkalemia and upper respiratory infection occurred at a higher frequency in the roxadustat group, and hypertension occurred at a higher frequency in the epoetin alfa group. CONCLUSIONS Oral roxadustat was noninferior to parenteral epoetin alfa as therapy for anemia in Chinese patients undergoing dialysis. (Funded by FibroGen and FibroGen [China] Medical Technology Development; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02652806.).
Phase 2 studies of oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor FG-4592 for treatment of anemia in China
Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2017;32((8):):1373-1386
Background.: FG-4592 (roxadustat) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (HIF-PHI) promoting coordinated erythropoiesis through the transcription factor HIF. Two Phase 2 studies were conducted in China to explore the safety and efficacy of FG-4592 (USAN name: roxadustat, CDAN name: ), a HIF-PHI, in patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), both patients who were dialysis-dependent (DD) and patients who were not dialysis-dependent (NDD). Methods.: In the NDD study, 91 participants were randomized to low (1.1-1.75 mg/kg) or high (1.50-2.25 mg/kg) FG-4592 starting doses or to placebo. In the DD study, 87 were enrolled to low (1.1-1.8 mg/kg), medium (1.5-2.3 mg/kg) and high (1.7-2.3 mg/kg) starting FG-4592 doses or to continuation of epoetin alfa. In both studies, only oral iron supplementation was allowed. Results.: In the NDD study, hemoglobin (Hb) increase ≥1 g/dL from baseline was achieved in 80.0% of subjects in the low-dose cohort and 87.1% in the high-dose cohort, versus 23.3% in the placebo arm (P < 0.0001, both). In the DD study, 59.1%, 88.9% (P = 0.008) and 100% (P = 0.0003) of the low-, medium- and high-dose subjects maintained their Hb levels after 5- and 6-weeks versus 50% of the epoetin alfa-treated subjects. In both studies, significant reductions in cholesterol were noted in FG-4592-treated subjects, with stability or increases in serum iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) and transferrin (without intravenous iron administration). In the NDD study, hepcidin levels were significantly reduced across all FG-4592-treated arms as compared with no change in the placebo arm. In the DD study, hepcidin levels were also reduced in a statistically significant dose-dependent manner in the highest dose group as compared with the epoetin alfa-treated group. Adverse events were similar for FG-4592-treated and control subjects. Conclusions.: FG-4592 may prove an effective alternative for managing anemia of CKD. It is currently being investigated in a pivotal global Phase 3 program.
The impact of hemocoagulase for improvement of coagulation and reduction of bleeding in fracture-related hip hemiarthroplasty geriatric patients: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized, controlled study
BACKGROUND Uncontrolled bleeding is associated with poor outcomes and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty. Hemocoagulase agkistrodon is a hemocoagulative, anti-hemorrhagic enzyme complex from Deinagkistrodon acutus snake venom. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of hemocoagulase agkistrodon on coagulation and bleeding outcomes in fracture-related hemiarthroplasty. PATIENTS AND METHODS This was a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial carried out between October 2013 and September 2014 in 96 geriatric patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty for unilateral femoral neck fracture. Patients were administrated hemocoagulase agkistrodon (n=48) or normal saline (n=48). Intraoperative blood loss, transfusion volume and rate, and drainage were assessed. Hemoglobin (Hb) and coagulation parameters (prothrombin time [PT], thrombin time [TT], plasma fibrinogen [FIB], and activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT]) were recorded preoperatively and 30min and 1, 3, and 5days after surgery. Complications were followed up for 4 weeks. RESULTS Compared to controls, hemocoagulase patients exhibited lower intraoperative blood loss (P<0.01) and postoperative blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates (all P<0.05), with lower aPTT at 30min (P<0.05). No significant differences in postoperative FIB were observed. Controls exhibited significantly higher PP and TT on day 1, and Hb on days 1, 3, and 5 (P<0.05). No serious complications were reported. CONCLUSIONS Hemocoagulase reduced blood loss and transfusion in fracture-related hip hemiarthroplasty without increasing short-term adverse event rates. In geriatric populations, hemocoagulase could be used for limiting bleeding and related complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION This trial is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Register (no. ChiCTR-TRC-14004379).