The efficacy and safety of combined administration of intravenous and intra-articular tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty: An update meta-analysis
Ling T, Zhang L, Huang L
Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. 2022
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE This study was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of combined administration of intravenous (IV) and intra-articular (IA) tranexamic acid (TXA) with IV or IA TXA alone in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in July 2021. Total blood loss, transfusion rate, postoperative haemoglobin drop, drain output, deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) were pooled. Data were analyzed using Stata 14.0 software. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42020186654. RESULTS Ten RCTs involving 1306 patients were included. Combined TXA group provided lower total blood loss (SMD -0.47; 95% CI -0.64 to -0.30; p < 0.001), postoperative haemoglobin drop (SMD -0.47; 95% CI -0.60 to -0.33; p < 0.001) and drain output (SMD -0.50; 95% CI -0.71 to -0.29; p = 0.009) compared with IV or IA TXA alone group. No significant difference was found in terms of transfusion rate (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.23 to 1.23; p = 0.137) and DVT (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.18 to 1.68; p = 0.293). PE data was provided by all 10 studies, but PE only occurred in one patient in IV TXA alone group. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION Combined administration of IV and IA TXA was relatively more effective in reducing total blood loss, transfusion rate, postoperative haemoglobin drop, and drain output after TKA. TXA may not increase the risk of DVT/PE, but it also needs to be monitored in clinical application.
Effects of Tranexamic Acid on Hemorrhage Control and Deep Venous Thrombosis Rate After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Ling T, Zhao Z, Xu W, Ge W, Huang L
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2021;12:639694
Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery has a lot of complications, especially hemorrhage, which can be controlled via tranexamic acid (TXA). The guidelines endorse the integration of TXA interventions in the management of TKA-induced complications. However, uncertainty surrounds the effects of different TXA therapies. This frequentist model network meta-analysis (NMA) aims to compare hemorrhage control and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) rate of different TXA therapies in TKA. Methods: Articles were searched with the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from 1966 to October 2020. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different TXA therapies, or with placebo in patients with TKA were included. Two investigators independently conducted article retrievals and data collection. The outcome was total blood loss and DVT rate. Effect size measures were mean differences (MDs), or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We conducted a random-effects NMA using a frequentist approach to estimate relative effects for all comparisons and rank treatments according to the mean rank and surface under the cumulative ranking curve values. All analyses were performed in Stata software or R software. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42020202404. Results: We identified 1 754 citations and included 81 studies with data for 9 987 patients with TKA. Overall, all TXA therapies were superior to placebo for total blood loss in TKA. Of all TXA therapies, M therapy (IV/IV infusion + oral TXA > 3g) was most effective for total blood loss (MD=-688.48, -1084.04--328.93), followed by F therapy (IV TXA ≥ 15 mg/kg or 1 g three times). TXA therapies in this study are not associated with the increase of DVT risk. Conclusions: TXA therapies in this study are effective and safe for the treatment of TKA-induced complications. M therapy (IV/IV infusion + oral TXA > 3 g) may be the most effective TXA therapy for hemorrhage control. TXA therapies in this study do not increase DVT risk. Considering hemorrhage control and DVT rate simultaneously, F therapy (IV TXA ≥ 15 mg/kg or 1 g three times) may be suggested to apply for TKA, and this study may provide a crucial clue to future TXA use.
Influence of tourniquet use in primary total knee arthroplasty with drainage: a prospective randomised controlled trial
Zhou K, Ling T, Wang H, Zhou Z, Shen B, Yang J, Kang P, Pei F
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. 2017;12((1)):172.
BACKGROUND We aimed to compare the effect of tourniquet use or lack of it on recovery following uncomplicated primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS In a prospective randomised double-blinded study, 150 patients undergoing primary TKA were assigned to either a tourniquet or non-tourniquet group. At the early phase, 3 and 6 months after surgery, an independent observer assessed the primary outcome measure (i.e. total blood loss) and secondary outcome measures (i.e. wound complications, visual analogue scale pain score and knee range of motion). RESULTS The tourniquet group exhibited reduced intraoperative blood loss (215.7 +/- 113.7 ml vs. 138.6 +/- 93.9 ml, P < 0.001) and shorter operating time (77.2 +/- 14.5 min vs. 82.0 +/- 12.7 min, P = 0.038). However, the non-tourniquet group showed less postoperative blood loss (180.2 +/- 117.0 ml vs. 253.7 +/- 144.2 ml, P = 0.001) and drainage volume (89.2 +/- 66.3 ml vs. 164.5 +/- 97.8 ml, P = 0.004), less thigh pain (all P < 0.001) in the initial 3 weeks, better knee range of motion (ROM) in the initial 3 days (day 1 81.6 +/- 17.1 vs. 75.95 +/- 14.55, P = 0.036; day 3 99.8 +/- 13.7 vs. 93.95 +/- 11.15, P = 0.005) and fewer wound tension vesicles (10.3 vs. 29.2%, P = 0.005). Earlier straight-leg raising (4.6 +/- 3.8 h vs. 6.4 +/- 4.3 h, P = 0.01) and shorter length of stay (6.3 +/- 1.7 days vs. 7.1 +/- 1.9 days, P = 0.001) were found in the non-tourniquet group. Similar total blood loss and blood transfusion rate were observed for both groups. All other parameters revealed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that a non-tourniquet TKA would lead to early rehabilitation without increasing side effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION Chinese Clinical Trials Registry, ChiCTR-IOR-16007851 , 1/29/2016.