Comparative analysis of the hemostatic, analgesic and healing effects of cyanoacrylate on free gingival graft surgical wounds in donor and recipient areas: a systematic review
Veríssimo AH, Ribeiro AKC, Martins Arla, Gurgel BCV, Lins Rdau
Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine. 2021;32(9):98
To analyze the hemostatic, Dsurgical wounds in donor and recipient areas of free gingival grafts (FGG). Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Cochrane and Web of Science) were searched up to March 2021 (PROSPERO CRD42019134497). The focus of the study (cyanoacrylate) was combined with the condition (periodontal surgery OR free gingival graft OR free soft tissue graft OR autografts), and outcome (healing OR epithelialization OR pain OR analgesia OR bleeding OR hemostasis OR hemostatic). Studies reporting cyanoacrylate isolated or associated with another substance in FGG stabilization and closure were investigated and assessed for the quality and risk of bias through the Cochrane Manual. Six studies with 323 participants were included. Evaluation of the quality and risk of bias highlighted a low risk for four articles, intermediate for one and unclear for another. The use of cyanoacrylate associated or not with the hemostatic sponge or the platelet-rich fibrin was more effective in healing (three studies), analgesia (four studies), and hemostasis in one study (p < 0.05). However, groups with the association in cyanoacrylate showed superior healing, and analgesic action to the isolated cyanoacrylate group. In addition, two studies demonstrated that cyanoacrylate use reduces surgery duration, one study showed that it reduces postoperative sensibility, and another present hemostatic effect (p < 0.05). There is scarce literature for the use of cyanoacrylate in FGG wounds indicates that it can promote a minor inflammatory response, reduce operation time, does not interfere with healing, relieves postoperative discomfort, and suggests the possibility immediate hemostasis. Its use presents an alternative to suturing in FGG surgeries. But, the limited number of cases and the relative heterogeneity of the included studies suggest caution in generalizing the indication. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cyanoacrylate seems to present analgesic effects and less pain when applied to wound closure and covering donor and recipient areas reducing the need for postoperative analgesic medication; and has a healing effect in the closure of the donor area on the palate. In addition, it can reduce bleeding time after surgery, and prevents late bleeding during the first postsurgical week. Scientific justification: To evaluate the hemostatic, analgesic and healing actions of cyanoacrylate compared to the suture thread and other agents when used to close surgical wounds from periodontal free gingival graft surgical wounds in both the donor and recipient areas of the graft. MAIN FINDINGS The use of cyanoacrylate individually or in association with wound dressing agents presents analgesic effects because the patient reports less pain experienced when cyanoacrylate is applied to the wound closure and covering, thereby reducing the need for postoperative analgesic medication. In addition, a healing effect is observed in the closure of the donor area on the palate; as well as it seems to present hemostatic effects, reducing the bleeding time after surgery, and preventing late bleeding during the first postsurgical week. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS Dentists may cautiously apply cyanoacrylate after periodontal surgeries for free gingival graft in both the donor and recipient areas of the graft. However, they must consider the limitations of the surgery, tension-free positioning, the patient's dyscrasia and postoperative care, constituting a set of predictors for adequate clinical decision-making. Widespread use of such material for all patients and surgical configurations may not be recommended.