Combined use of tranexamic acid and rivaroxaban in posterior lumbar interbody fusion safely reduces blood loss and transfusion rates without increasing the risk of thrombosis-a prospective, stratified, randomized, controlled trial
Int Orthop. 2020
PURPOSE This prospective, stratified, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study investigated the safety and effectiveness of reducing blood loss and preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) during posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in patients with stenosis or spondylolisthesis using the combination of tranexamic acid (TXA) and rivaroxaban. METHODS The Autar score was evaluated in patients after admission. Patients with an Autar score ≤ 10 were randomized to group A or B. Group A was the placebo-controlled group. Patients in group B were treated with 1 g TXA via intravenous injection and 1 g TXA for external use. Patients with an Autar score > 10 were randomized to group C or D. Patients in group C were treated with 10-mg rivaroxaban qd for 35 days after surgery. Patients in group D received the same treatment as those in group B intra-operatively and as those in group C post-operatively. RESULTS A total of 599 patients from eight hospitals participated in this clinical trial. The total blood loss, intra-operative blood loss, and drainage volume were reduced by the administration of TXA (group A vs group B, P < 0.01; group C vs group D, P < 0.01), and the blood transfusion rate was also decreased (group A vs group B, P < 0.01; group C vs group D, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the VTE incidence rates among group A and group B. In patients with high-risk thrombosis, the number of patients with VTE was only three and seven after the application of rivaroxaban. Epidural haematoma was not discovered in any patients in our trial. CONCLUSION The combined application of tranexamic acid and rivaroxaban significantly reduced the amount of blood loss and the transfusion rate during PLIF surgery and avoided an increase in the probability of thrombosis and the occurrence of epidural haematoma. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION ChiCTR-1800016430 2018-06-01.
Use of recombinant activated factor VII for the treatment of perioperative bleeding in noncardiac surgery patients without hemophilia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Journal of critical care. 2020;62:164-171
PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of perioperative use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in noncardiac patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved the use of rFVIIa through December 13, 2019 in noncardiac patients without hemophilia. Two investigators extracted the related data and assessed the quality of the included trials. RESULTS Eleven RCTs examining 993 perioperative patients were ultimately included. The use of rFVIIa did not decrease all-cause mortality (RR:0.90; 95% CI:0.50,1.64; I(2) = 0.0%; P = 0.738), shorten the length of ICU (SMD:-0.15; 95% CI:-0.47,0.17; I(2) = 0.0%; P = 0.346) or hospital (SMD:0.42; 95% CI:-0.05,0.89; I(2) = 0.0%; P = 0.078) stay, or increase incidence of the thromboembolic events (RR:1.30; 95% CI:0.70,2.41; I(2) = 0.0%; P = 0.403) among perioperative patients. However, individual RCT analyses showed that the use of rFVIIa could reduce the volume of blood loss (including prostatic cancer, severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and spinal disease) and the transfusion of RBCs (including prostatic cancer, SAP, and spinal disease) and FFP (SAP) in a subset of perioperative patients. Publication bias was not present. CONCLUSIONS For perioperative hemorrhagic patients, rFVIIa-based hemostatic therapy showed no effect on mortality, ICU or hospital LOS, or the rate of thromboembolic events, although it appears to decrease blood loss and reduce the need for blood product transfusion in a subset of patients.
Efficacy of convalescent plasma for the treatment of severe influenza
Crit Care. 2020;24(1):469
BACKGROUND Convalescent plasma administration may be of clinical benefit in patients with severe influenza, but reports on the efficacy of this therapy vary. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving the administration of convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza. Healthcare databases were searched in February 2020. All records were screened against eligibility criteria, and the risks of bias were assessed. The primary outcome was the fatality rate. RESULTS A total of 2861 studies were retrieved and screened. Five eligible RCTs were identified. Pooled analyses yielded no evidence that using convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza resulted in significant reductions in mortality (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.51-2·23; P = 0.87; I(2) = 35%), number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation. This treatment may have the possible benefits of increasing hemagglutination inhibition titers and reducing influenza B viral loads and cytokine levels. No serious adverse events were reported. The included studies were generally of high quality with a low risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS The administration of convalescent plasma appears safe but may not reduce the mortality, number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation in patients with severe influenza.
Clinical Effects of Balanced Crystalloids vs Saline in Adults With Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Subgroup Analysis of Cluster Randomized Clinical Trials
Patients hospitalized with severe influenza (5 studies, n= 598).
Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (H-IVIG).
Various comparators (normal intravenous immunoglobulin, standard care, low-titre anti-influenza, placebo).
Pooled analyses yielded no evidence that using convalescent plasma to treat severe influenza resulted in significant reductions in mortality, number of days in the intensive care unit, or number of days on mechanical ventilation.
JAMA network open. 2020;3(11):e2024596
IMPORTANCE Saline (0.9% sodium chloride), the fluid most commonly used to treat diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Balanced crystalloids, an alternative class of fluids for volume expansion, do not cause acidosis and, therefore, may lead to faster resolution of DKA than saline. OBJECTIVE To compare the clinical effects of balanced crystalloids with the clinical effects of saline for the acute treatment of adults with DKA. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study was a subgroup analysis of adults with DKA in 2 previously reported companion trials-Saline Against Lactated Ringer's or Plasma-Lyte in the Emergency Department (SALT-ED) and the Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART). These trials, conducted between January 2016 and March 2017 in an academic medical center in the US, were pragmatic, multiple-crossover, cluster, randomized clinical trials comparing balanced crystalloids vs saline in emergency department (ED) and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This study included adults who presented to the ED with DKA, defined as a clinical diagnosis of DKA, plasma glucose greater than 250 mg/dL, plasma bicarbonate less than or equal to 18 mmol/L, and anion gap greater than 10 mmol/L. Data analysis was performed from January to April 2020. INTERVENTIONS Balanced crystalloids (clinician's choice of Ringer lactate solution or Plasma-Lyte A solution) vs saline for fluid administration in the ED and ICU according to the same cluster-randomized multiple-crossover schedule. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was time between ED presentation and DKA resolution, as defined by American Diabetes Association criteria. The secondary outcome was time between initiation and discontinuation of continuous insulin infusion. RESULTS Among 172 adults included in this secondary analysis of cluster trials, 94 were assigned to balanced crystalloids and 78 to saline. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 29 (24-45) years, and 90 (52.3%) were women. The median (IQR) volume of isotonic fluid administered in the ED and ICU was 4478 (3000-6372) mL. Cumulative incidence analysis revealed shorter time to DKA resolution in the balanced crystalloids group (median time to resolution: 13.0 hours; IQR: 9.5-18.8 hours) than the saline group (median: 16.9 hours; IQR: 11.9-34.5 hours) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.38; P = .004). Cumulative incidence analysis also revealed shorter time to insulin infusion discontinuation in the balanced crystalloids group (median: 9.8 hours; IQR: 5.1-17.0 hours) than the saline group (median: 13.4 hours; IQR: 11.0-17.9 hours) (aHR = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.03-2.03; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this secondary analysis of 2 cluster randomized clinical trials, compared with saline, treatment with balanced crystalloids resulted in more rapid resolution of DKA, suggesting that balanced crystalloids may be preferred over saline for acute management of adults with DKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02614040; NCT02444988.
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of romiplostim treatment of patients with low or intermediate-1 risk myelodysplastic syndrome receiving lenalidomide
Journal of Hematology & Oncology. 2012;5:71
BACKGROUND Lenalidomide treatment in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) may lead to thrombocytopenia and dose reductions/delays. This study evaluated the safety and tolerability of the thrombopoietin mimetic romiplostim and its effects on the incidence of clinically significant thrombocytopenic events (CSTEs) in lower risk MDS patients receiving lenalidomide. METHODS Patients were assigned to weekly placebo (n=12) or romiplostim 500ug (n=14) or 750ug (n=13) for four 28-day lenalidomide cycles. RESULTS The treatment groups were generally similar with respect to baseline disease characteristics. Del(5q) abnormalities were noted in 1 (8%) patient in the placebo group, 3 (21%) in the romiplostim 500ug group, and two (15%) in the 750ug group. CSTEs were noted in 8 (67%) patients in the placebo group, 4 (29%) in the romiplostim 500ug group, and 8 (62%) in the romiplostim 750ug group. Throughout the study, median platelet counts trended lower in placebo-treated than in romiplostim-treated patients. Thrombocytopenia-related adjustments in lenalidomide occurred in 6 (50%) patients in the placebo group, 5 (36%) in the romiplostim 500ug group, and 2 (15%) in the 750ug group. Although the percentages of patients who received platelet transfusions were similar across treatment groups, there was a trend toward lower numbers of transfusions in both romiplostim groups during each treatment cycle. There were two serious treatment-related adverse events during the treatment period (cerebrovascular accident, placebo; worsening thrombocytopenia, romiplostim 500ug). Two patients (romiplostim 500 and 750ug, respectively) had an increase in bone marrow blasts to >20% during treatment, but had no post-treatment biopsy to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of progression to AML. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that romiplostim administered to MDS patients during lenalidomide treatment may decrease the frequency of dose reductions/delays due to thrombocytopenia. Additional study is needed to confirm the results of this preliminary trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00418665.