Terlipressin for the treatment of septic shock in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC anesthesiology. 2020;20(1):58
BACKGROUND Catecholamines are the first-line vasopressors used in patients with septic shock. However, the search for novel drug candidates is still of great importance due to the development of adrenergic hyposensitivity accompanied by a decrease in catecholamine activity. Terlipressin (TP) is a synthetic vasopressin analogue used in the management of patients with septic shock. In the current study, we aimed to compare the effects of TP and catecholamine infusion in treating septic shock patients. METHODS A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching articles published in PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials between inception and July 2018. We only selected randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of TP and catecholamine in adult patients with septic shock. The primary outcome was overall mortality. The secondary outcomes were the ICU length of stay, haemodynamic changes, tissue perfusion, renal function, and adverse events. RESULTS A total of 9 studies with 850 participants were included in the analysis. Overall, no significant difference in mortality was observed between the TP and catecholamine groups (risk ratio(RR), 0.85 (0.70 to 1.03); P = 0.09). In patients < 60 years old, the mortality rate was lower in the TP group than in the catecholamine group (RR, 0.66 (0.50 to 0.86); P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the ICU length of stay (mean difference, MD), - 0.28 days; 95% confidence interval (CI), - 1.25 to 0.69; P = 0.58). Additionally, TP improved renal function. The creatinine level was decreased in patients who received TP therapy compared to catecholamine-treated participants (standard mean difference, SMD), - 0.65; 95% CI, - 1.09 to - 0.22; P = 0.003). No significant difference was found regarding the total adverse events (Odds Ratio(OR), 1.48(0.51 to 4.24); P = 0.47), whereas peripheral ischaemia was more common in the TP group (OR, 8.65(1.48 to 50.59); P = 0.02). CONCLUSION The use of TP was associated with reduced mortality in septic shock patients less than 60 years old. TP may also improve renal function and cause more peripheral ischaemia. PROSPERO registry: CRD42016035872.
Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus corticosteroid injections in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review, pairwise and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
PM & R : the journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation. 2019
OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), autologous blood (AB), and corticosteroid injections in patients with lateral epicondylitis. TYPE OF STUDY Network meta-analysis. LITERATURE SURVEY Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any two forms of injections among PRP, AB, and corticosteroid for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis were searched from inception to November 30, 2018, on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library. METHODOLOGY Two researchers independently selected and assessed the quality of RCTs with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. All relevant data from the included studies were extracted and heterogeneity was checked by Cochran's Q test and inconsistency statistic (I(2) ). Publication bias was evaluated by constructing contour-enhanced funnel plots. Stata 15 software was applied for pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. To explore the efficacy between different follow-up periods, we considered the duration within two months to be short-term, whereas two months or more was considered long-term. SYNTHESIS Twenty RCTs (n = 1,271) were included in this network meta-analysis. According to ranking probabilities, corticosteroid ranked first for visual analog score (VAS) (Surface Under the Cumulative Ranking [SUCRA] = 90.7), modified Nirschl score (MNS) (82.9), maximum grip strength (MGS) (69.5), modified Mayo score (MMS) (77.9), and Patient-Related Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) score (93.3) for the short-term period. For the long-term period, PRP ranked first for VAS (94.3), pressure pain threshold (PPT) (99.8), Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score (75.2), MMS (88.2), and the PRTEE score (81.8). CONCLUSION PRP was associated with more improvement in pain intensity and 29 function in the long-term than the comparators. However, in the short-term, corticosteroids were associated with the most improvement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Prophylactic use of tranexamic acid reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing cesarean section: A meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2019
AIM: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been used to treat peripartum hemorrhage, while preoperative use of TXA in cesarean section (CS) remains controversial. To assess the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic application of TXA, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS Electronic databases (MEDLINE [PubMed], Cochrane central register of controlled trials and Embase) were searched up to November 2018. The relevant data and quality of included trail were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. The study was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42018111165). RESULTS Twenty-one randomized controlled trials with a total of 3852 patients were included. Only one research reported thromboembolic events. Compared with control groups, the intra-operative blood loss (mean difference [MD] -155.23 mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] -195.64 - 114.81; P<0.01), postoperative blood loss (MD -26.67 mL, 95% CI -32.98 to -20.36; P<0.01), total blood loss (MD -184.88 mL, 95% CI -218.83 to -150.94; P<0.01), transfusion requirements (relative risk [RR] 0.29, 95% CI 0.18-0.49, P<0.01), massive hemorrhage (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.51; P<0.01) and additional uterotonic agents use (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.30-0.55, P<0.01) were markedly reduced in TXA-treated patients. Besides, TXA yielded a significant reduction in hemoglobin drop (MD -0.80 g/dL, 95% CI -1.07 to -0.53; P<0.01) and hematocrit drop (MD -2.05, 95% CI -3.09 to -1.01; P<0.01) compared with control groups. CONCLUSION Prophylactic application of TXA can decrease perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing CS. More high-quality researches are needed to determine optimal dose of the drug.
Comprehensive assessment of tranexamic acid during orthognathic surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2019
The objective of this study was to comprehensively assess the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) during orthognathic surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials addressing these issues were carried out. Three electronic databases, included PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, were searched until April 30, 2018. Eligible studies were restricted to randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). Weighted mean differences (WMD) for blood loss, operation time, haematocrit, quality of surgical field, and odds ratio (OR) for transfusion rates were pooled for the included studies. Eight randomized, controlled trials were included for analysis. Compared with the control group, the TXA group showed a reduction in intraoperative blood loss of 165.03 ml (p < 0.00001; 95% CI, -200.93 to -129.13 ml), a reduction in the drop of haematocrit of 2.32 g/dl (p < 0.00001; 95% CI, -3.38 to -1.26 g/dl), and an improved quality of surgical field (p < 0.00001; MD, -1.01; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.80). Tranexamic acid has a limited effect on reducing operative time (p < 0.00001; MD, -16.18 min; 95% CI, -19.60 to -12.75 min) and on decreasing the transfusion rates (p = 0.02; OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83).
Blood transfusion and risk of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A meta-analysis of cohort studies
The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effect of blood transfusion (BT) on postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) in adult patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery.PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to January 2017 were searched. Cohort studies were searched that evaluated the association between BT and the risk of postoperative AF in adult patients who had undergone CABG surgery. Study quality was assessed by using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS). A meta-analysis was performed with the random-effect model.Eight cohort studies involving 7401 AF cases and 31,069 participants were identified and included in our data analysis. The pooled odds ratio of postoperative AF in patients with BT was 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.67), with significant heterogeneity (P < .0001, I = 79%). Excluding one study that had an off-pump CABG did not significantly impact this result (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.50; n = 7). To examine the stability of the primary results, we performed subgroup analyses. The association between BT and the risk of postoperative AF was similar, as determined in the stratified analyses conducted according to study design, type of surgery, and country.The findings of the present meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significant increase in postoperative AF risk among adult patients with BT. Further prospective large-scale studies are needed to establish causality and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
Tranexamic acid reduces hidden blood loss in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures with PFNA: a single-center randomized controlled trial
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. 2017;12((1)):124.
BACKGROUND Hidden blood loss is a major concern for patients undergoing hip surgery for intertrochanteric fracture. The objective of this study was to investigate whether tranexamic acid (TXA) could reduce postoperative hidden blood loss in patients undergoing hip surgery for intertrochanteric fracture. METHODS A total of 77 patients with intertrochanteric fracture were enrolled in this randomized controlled study. Patients received either 200 mL (1 g) of TXA (n = 37) or normal-saline (NS) (n = 40) i.v. before hip surgery using proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA). Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were measured preoperatively and postoperatively at day 1 and 3. Visible and hidden blood loss volumes were calculated at postoperative day 3. RESULTS On postoperative day 3, the transfusion rate was significantly lower in the TXA group compared to the NS group, although mean hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the estimated hidden blood loss volume (210.09 +/- 202.14 mL vs. 359.35 +/- 290.12 mL; P < 0.05) and total blood loss volume (279.35 +/- 209.11 mL vs. 417.89 +/- 289.56 mL; P < 0.05) were significantly less in the TXA group compared to the NS group, respectively. CONCLUSION TXA significantly reduced postoperative hidden blood loss in patients with intertrochanteric fracture who underwent PFNA. (Registration number: ChiCTR-INR-16008134).
Combined use of intravenous and topical versus intravenous tranexamic acid in primary total knee and hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research. 2017;12((1)):22.
BACKGROUND This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of combined intravenous and topical methods of application versus single intravenous of tranexamic acid in primary total knee and hip arthroplasty. METHODS A systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE (from 1966 to 25 September 2016), PubMed (from 1966 to 25 September 2016), Embase (from 1980 to 25 September 2016), ScienceDirect (from 1985 to 25 September 2016) and the Cochrane Library. Only high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCT) were identified. Two authors independently performed data extraction and quality assessment of included studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.1 software. RESULTS Six RCTs that included 687 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -193.59, 95% CI -338.06 to -49.13, P = 0.009), transfusion rate (RD = -0.07, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.03, P = 0.001), haemoglobin decline (MD = -0.51, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.18, P = 0.01) and length of stay (MD = -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.02, P = 0.03) between groups. CONCLUSIONS Combined administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with total knee and hip arthroplasty was associated with significantly reduced total blood loss, transfusion requirements, postoperative haemoglobin decline and length of stay compared to single application alone but was not associated with prolonged operation time. Moreover, no adverse effects, such as superficial infection, deep vein thrombus (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), were associated with TXA. We suggest that combined administration of TXA demonstrated excellent clinical efficacy and safety in patients with total knee and hip arthroplasty. More importantly, well-designed studies with larger sample size are needed to provide further reliable evidence for the combined use of TXA.
Coronary artery complication in Kawasaki disease and the importance of early intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Jama Pediatrics. 2016;170((12):):1156-1163
Importance: The timing and selection of patients with Kawasaki disease for corticosteroid use to prevent coronary artery complications remain controversial. Objective: To evaluate the effect of corticosteroid therapy in KD. Data Sources: Databases of Medline, The Cochrane Library, and the Clinicaltrials.gov website until July 2015. We used the key words ["Kawasaki disease"] and ["steroid" OR "corticosteroid"] to retrieve potentially relevant studies in the databases of Medline, the Cochrane Library, and the Clinicaltrials.gov website until July 2015. Both English and non-English literature was identified. Titles and abstracts were reviewed by 2 authors (S.C. and Y.D.) to determine suitability for inclusion. Relevant articles were reassessed by reviewing the full text. Discrepancies in study inclusion were resolved by consensus (M.G.K.). Study Selection: Clinical studies that compared corticosteroids plus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy with IVIG therapy alone in treating patients with KD. Studies either using corticosteroids as initial therapy or as rescue therapy were included. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Investigators independently extracted the data information. Data were quantitatively synthesized using random-effects analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rate of coronary artery abnormalities. Results: Sixteen comparative studies characterizing 2746 patients were analyzed. The duration of illness before corticosteroids therapy was significantly shorter in the initial corticosteroids subset than in the rescue corticosteroids subset. The rate of coronary artery abnormalities was significantly lower in adjunctive corticosteroids therapy than in IVIG therapy (odds ratio [OR], 0.424; 95% CI, 0.270-0.665). Meta-regression based on known variables demonstrated that the overall efficacy was negatively correlated with the duration of illness before corticosteroid therapy (P < .001). Subgroup analysis, including studies using corticosteroids plus IVIG as initial therapy, showed a more advantageous effect than IVIG alone regarding coronary artery abnormality prevention (OR, 0.320; 95% CI, 0.183-0.560), whereas this benefit was not found in a subgroup of studies using corticosteroids as rescue therapy. Further analysis found that patients predicted at baseline to be at high risk of IVIG resistance seemed to obtain the greatest benefit from adjunctive corticosteroid therapy regarding coronary artery abnormality prevention (OR, 0.240; 95% CI, 0.123-0.467). The fever duration was significantly reduced in the corticosteroids group. The favorable effects of corticosteroids were conferred without an increased risk of adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: This study highlights the importance of timing to prevent coronary artery complication in treating KD. High-risk patients with KD benefit greatly from a timely and potent adjunctive corticosteroid therapy strategy.