Local administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid reduces post-operative blood loss from surgery for closed, Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures
International orthopaedics. 2022
PURPOSE To investigate whether local administration of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) is effective and safe in reducing the post-operative blood loss in surgery for Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures. METHODS Patients with Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures who were hospitalized in our hospital from January 2016 to February 2021 and underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) via lateral approach with an L-shaped incision were included in the current study. Eighty five patients were randomly divided into two groups, EACA group (43) and control group (42). Twenty milliliters of 5% EACA solution or normal saline was perfused into the incision of patients in EACA group and control group, respectively. The volume of post-operative drainage was investigated as the primary outcome. Post-operative blood test, coagulation test, and wound complications were analyzed as the secondary outcomes. RESULTS The volume of post-operative drainage at 24 and 48 h was 164.8 ± 51.4 ml, 18.9 ± 3.8 ml for patients in EACA group, and 373.0 ± 88.1 ml, 21.2 ± 4.4 ml for patients in the control group, respectively. EACA greatly reduced the post-operative blood loss compared to the control (normal saline). The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No statistically significant difference was found between EACA group and control group with regard to the pre-operative, baseline characteristics. Post-operative blood test results demonstrated that haemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly higher in EACA compared to those of control group. No significant difference was found between EACA group and control group in terms of the platelet counts, prothrombin time (P.T.), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), and wound complications. CONCLUSION Local administration of EACA is effective in post-operative blood loss reduction in ORIF surgeries for Sanders III-IV types of calcaneal fractures without increasing the incidence of periwound complication.
Efficacy and safety of nafamostat mesilate anticoagulation in blood purification treatment of critically ill patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Renal failure. 2022;44(1):1263-1279
BACKGROUND Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a broad-spectrum and potent serine protease inhibitor, can be used as an anticoagulant during extracorporeal circulation, as well as a promising drug effective against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of NM administration in critically ill patients who underwent blood purification therapy (BPT). METHODS The Cochrane Library, Web of Science and PubMed were comprehensively searched from inception to August 20, 2021, for potential studies. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven observational studies with 2723 patients met the inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis demonstrated that conventional therapy (CT) significantly increased hospital mortality compared with NM administration (RR = 1.25, p = 0.0007). In subgroup analyses, the in-hospital mortality of the NM group was significantly lower than that of the anticoagulant-free (NA) group (RR = 1.31, p = 0.002). The CT interventions markedly elevated the risk ratio of bleeding complications by 45% (RR = 1.45, p = 0.010) compared with NM interventions. In another subgroup analysis, NM used exhibited a significantly lower risk of bleeding complications than those of the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) used (RR = 4.58, p = 0.020). The filter lifespan was decreased significantly (MD = -10.59, p < 0.0001) in the NA groups compared with the NM groups. Due to the poor quality of the included RCTs, these results should be interpreted with caution. CONCLUSION Given the better survival outcomes, lower risk of bleeding, NM anticoagulation seems to be a safe and efficient approach for BPT patients and could yield a favorable filter lifespan. More multi-center RCTs with large samples are required for further validation of this study.
Peri-Articular Injection of Tranexamic Acid Reduce Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement During Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis
Geriatric orthopaedic surgery & rehabilitation. 2022;13:21514593221101264
BACKGROUND The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of peri-articular injection of tranexamic acid (TXA) during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) from clinical controlled trials. METHOD Eligible scientific articles published prior to October 2021 were retrieved from the PubMed, Springer, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library databases. The statistical analysis was performed with RevMan 5.1. RESULT 2 RCTs and 3 non-RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed significant differences in terms of hemoglobin reduction (MD = -1.04, 95% CI: -1.33 to -.76, P < .00001), total blood loss (MD = -342.80.70, 95% CI: -437.52 to -248.08, P < .00001), drainage volume (MD = -297.24, 95% CI: -497.26 to -97.23, P = .004) and blood transfusion rate (OR = .30, 95% CI: .14 to .62, P = .001) were found in the control group. No postoperative infection and deep venous thrombosis were found between 2 groups. CONCLUSION Peri-articular injection of TXA can effectively decrease perioperative blood loss and blood transfusion rate without increasing the incidence of postoperative complications during TKA.
Identification of Parameters Representative of Immune Dysfunction in Patients with Severe and Fatal COVID-19 Infection: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology. 2022;:1-33
Abnormal immunological indicators associated with disease severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 have been reported in several observational studies. However, there are marked heterogeneities in patient characteristics and research methodologies in these studies. We aimed to provide an updated synthesis of the association between immune-related indicators and COVID-19 prognosis. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Willey, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and CNKI for studies reporting immunological and/or immune-related parameters, including hematological, inflammatory, coagulation, and biochemical variables, tested on hospital admission of COVID-19 patients with different severities and outcomes. A total of 145 studies were included in the current meta-analysis, with 26 immunological, 11 hematological, 5 inflammatory, 4 coagulation, and 10 biochemical variables reported. Of them, levels of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgG, and CD4(+) T/CD8(+) T cell ratio, WBC, neutrophil, platelet, ESR, CRP, ferritin, SAA, D-dimer, FIB, and LDH were significantly increased in severely ill patients or non-survivors. Moreover, non-severely ill patients or survivors presented significantly higher counts of lymphocytes, monocytes, lymphocyte/monocyte ratio, eosinophils, CD3(+) T,CD4(+)T and CD8(+)T cells, B cells, and NK cells. The currently updated meta-analysis primarily identified a hypercytokinemia profile with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 containing IL-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-2R, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, reflected by decreased eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, NK cells, T cells, and their subtype CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and augmented inflammation, coagulation dysfunction, and nonpulmonary organ injury, were marked features of patients with poor prognosis. Therefore, parameters of immune response dysfunction combined with inflammatory, coagulated, or nonpulmonary organ injury indicators may be more sensitive to predict severe patients and those non-survivors.
Autologous platelet-rich plasma intrauterine perfusion to improve pregnancy outcomes after implantation failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
AIMS: Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings on the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy in women with implantation failure. The objective of this review was to evaluate whether PRP administration could improve pregnancy outcomes in women with implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilization. METHODS Electronic databases were searched for studies that explored the effects of PRP for patients with implantation failure. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Based on the available data, we performed subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS Eight studies were included. PRP treatment improved pregnancy outcomes for all women compared with no treatment or placebo (clinical pregnancy rate: OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.41-3.54; live birth rate: OR 5.76, 95% CI 1.55-21.44; miscarriage rate: OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.05-0.63), especially in randomized controlled trials. No significant differences were detected in multiple pregnancy rates (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.67-9.67). Furthermore, subgroup analysis based on the number of previous implantation failures showed that PRP treatment improved pregnancy outcomes in women with recurrent implantation failure (clinical pregnancy rate: OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.49-4.38; live birth rate: OR 5.07, 95% CI 1.15-22.34; miscarriage rate: OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.78). CONCLUSION PRP administration could improve pregnancy outcomes in women with recurrent implantation failure. Due to the limited evidence available, the efficacy of PRP in women with recurrent implantation failure needs to be further verified in high-quality studies with larger sample sizes.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat treatment for anemia in patients with kidney disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review
International urology and nephrology. 2021
BACKGROUND Anemia is a common complication for patients with kidney disease. Roxadustat is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI), which is a newly approved oral drug for anemia. We performed this study to build evidence regarding efficacy and safety of roxadustat in kidney disease patients with or without dialysis. METHODS We searched the databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library and clinicaltrials.gov from the inception to July 20, 2020. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared roxadustat with placebo or other therapies in the treatment of anemia in kidney disease patients were included. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled in a meta-analysis model using RevMan5.3 and stata13.0 software. RESULTS Eight RCTs with 1010 patients were included in our analysis. We found that roxadustat significantly increased hemoglobin (Hb) level (1.10 g/dL, 95% CI [0.52 g/dL, 1.67 g/dL], p = 0.0002), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (58.71 µg/dL, 95% CI [44.10 µg/dL, 73.32 µg/dL], p < 0.00001), iron level (9.28 µg/dL, 95% CI [0.11 µg/dL, 18.45 µg/dL], p = 0.05) compared with control group in kidney disease patients. In addition, our result showed that a significant reduction in hepcidin level (- 31.96 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 35.05 ng/mL, - 28.87 ng/mL], p < 0.00001), ferritin (- 44.82 ng/mL, 95% CI [- 64.42 ng/mL, - 25.23 ng/mL], p < 0.00001) was associated with roxadustat. No difference was found between roxadustat and control group in terms of oral iron supplementation, adverse events (AEs), serious adverse events (SAEs), infection, myocardial infraction, stroke, heart failure and death. CONCLUSIONS Roxadustat has higher mean Hb level than placebo or EPO. Due to the short follow-up period and the lack of critical data, more RCTs are needed to prove long-term safety and effectiveness of roxadustat in the future.
Effects of Local Administration of Tranexamic Acid on Reducing Postoperative Blood Loss in Surgeries for Closed, Sanders III-IV Calcaneal Fractures: A Randomized Controlled Study
Indian journal of orthopaedics. 2021;55(Suppl 2):418-425
PURPOSE To investigate whether local administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective in postoperative blood loss reduction in surgeries for Sanders III-IV calcaneal fractures. METHODS Calcaneal fracture patients who were hospitalized in our hospital from August 2014 to April 2018 and underwent open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) via lateral approach with an L-shaped incision were included in the present study. 53 Patients were randomly divided into three groups, groups A (17), B (17) and C (19). Twenty milliliters of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml TXA solution were perfused into the incision of patients in group A and group B, respectively. Twenty milliliters of saline were perfused into the incision of patients in group C as control. The volume of postoperative drainage, postoperative blood test, coagulation test, and wound complications were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of local administration of TXA on blood loss reduction. RESULTS The amount of drainage at 24 and 48 h after the procedure was 110 ± 170, 30 ± 10 ml and 130 ± 160, 20 ± 17 ml for patients in group A and group B, respectively. The corresponding numbers for patients in group C were 360 ± 320, 20 ± 10 ml. The difference between group A and group C was statistically significant, so was the difference between group B and group C. No statistically significant difference was found between group A and group B. Postoperative blood test results revealed that the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly higher in group A and group B when each compared to that of group C. In contrast, no difference was found between group A and group B. No significant difference was found between each experimental group and the control group in terms of platelet counts, prothrombin time (P.T.), activated partial prothrombin time (APTT), and wound complications. CONCLUSION Local administration of TXA is effective in the reduction of postoperative blood loss in surgeries for Sanders III-IV types of calcaneal fractures without notably associated side effects.
Liberal blood transfusion strategies and associated infection in orthopedic patients: A meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE It remains unclear whether transfusion strategies during orthopedic surgery and infection are related. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether liberal blood transfusion strategies contribute to infection risk in orthopedic patients by analyzing randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS RCTs with liberal versus restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from their inception to July 2019. Ten studies with infections as outcomes were included in the final analysis. According to the Jadad scale, all studies were considered to be of high quality. RESULTS Ten trials involving 3938 participants were included in this study. The pooled risk ratio (RR) for the association between liberal transfusion strategy and infection was 1.34 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.94-1.90; P = .106). The sensitivity analysis indicated unstable results, and no significant publication bias was observed. CONCLUSION This pooled analysis of RCTs demonstrates that liberal transfusion strategies in orthopedic patients result in a nonsignificant increase in infections compared with more restrictive strategies. The conclusions are mainly based on retrospective studies and should not be considered as recommendation before they are supported by larger scale and well-designed RCTs.
Risk of thrombocytopenia with Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Inhibitors (PDGFR-TKIs) in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of phase II/III randomized controlled trials
Journal of clinical pharmacology. 2021
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to fully investigate the thrombocytopenia of Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Inhibitors (PDGFR-TKIs) in cancer patients. Databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) treated with PDGFR-TKIs till January 2021. The relevant RCTs in cancer patients treated with PDGFR-TKIs were retrieved and the systematic evaluation was conducted. Nineteen RCTs and 3962 patients were included. Our study suggests that PDGFR-TKIs significantly increased the risks of all-grade (RR, 5.72; 95%CI, 4.32-7.59;p<0.00001; I(2) = 32%) and high-grade (RR, 5.65; 95%CI, 3.28- 9.75; p<0.00001; I(2) = 0%) thrombocytopenia in cancer patients. Sunitinib tend to be associated with the highest risk of thrombocytopenia among the included PDGFR-TKIs. The RR of high-grade thrombocytopenia varies significantly according to treatment line and median age. The available data suggested that the use of PDGFR-TKIs were associated with a significantly increased risk of thrombocytopenia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Conservative treatment of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and tendinopathy with platelet-rich plasma: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical rehabilitation. 2021;:2692155211011944
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of platelet-rich plasma as a conservative therapy in individuals with partial-thickness rotator cuff tears or tendinopathy on pain, and function. DATA SOURCES Embase, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Web of Science, CINAHL, PEDro, and the grey literature (to 31 March 2021). METHODS Randomized controlled trials in English that reported short-term (6 ± 1 months), or long-term (⩾1 year) outcomes (shoulder pain or function) were conducted. Two independent reviewers screened the literature, completed the assessment of the Cochrane's risk of bias and extracted the data. Mean difference or standardized mean difference was used for continuous data. Heterogeneity was identified with I(2) test. RESULTS A total of 11 studies were eligible, and nine studies (n = 629) were included in this meta-analysis, that showed statistically significant short-term effects of platelet-rich plasma on pain relief (MD = -1.56; 95% CI -2.82 to -0.30), Constant-Murley score (MD = 16.48; 95% CI 12.57 to 20.40), and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (MD = -18.78; 95% CI -36.55 to -1.02). Nonetheless, no long-term effect was observed on pain and function, except Constant-Murley score (MD = 24.30; 95% CI 23.27 to 25.33). The results of minimal important difference reached the minimal clinically important difference, except American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. For subgroup analysis, differences of pain relief were statistically significant in platelet-rich plasma-treated groups with double centrifugation, single injection, and post-injection rehabilitation. CONCLUSION Our results suggested platelet-rich plasma had positive effects on pain relief and functional improvement for partial-thickness rotator cuff tears and rotator cuff tendinopathy, although the effects may not last for a long time.