A New Nomogram for Predicting the Risk of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After Intravenous Thrombolysis
Frontiers in neurology. 2022;13:774654
BACKGROUND We aimed to develop and validate a new nomogram for predicting the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). METHODS A retrospective study enrolled 553 patients with AIS treated with IVT. The patients were randomly divided into two cohorts: the training set (70%, n = 387) and the testing set (30%, n = 166). The factors in the predictive nomogram were filtered using multivariable logistic regression analysis. The performance of the nomogram was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC), calibration plots, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS After multivariable logistic regression analysis, certain factors, such as smoking, National Institutes of Health of Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, blood urea nitrogen-to-creatinine ratio (BUN/Cr), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), were found to be independent predictors of ICH and were used to construct a nomogram. The AUC-ROC values of the nomogram were 0.887 (95% CI: 0.842-0.933) and 0.776 (95% CI: 0.681-0.872) in the training and testing sets, respectively. The AUC-ROC of the nomogram was higher than that of the Multicenter Stroke Survey (MSS), Glucose, Race, Age, Sex, Systolic blood Pressure, and Severity of stroke (GRASPS), and stroke prognostication using age and NIH Stroke Scale-100 positive index (SPAN-100) scores for predicting ICH in both the training and testing sets (p < 0.05). The calibration plot demonstrated good agreement in both the training and testing sets. DCA indicated that the nomogram was clinically useful. CONCLUSIONS The new nomogram, which included smoking, NIHSS, BUN/Cr, and NLR as variables, had the potential for predicting the risk of ICH in patients with AIS after IVT.
Intravenous Administration of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Improved Clarity of the Visual Field in Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery. A Prospective, Double-Blind, and Randomized Controlled Trial
Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association. 2019
PURPOSE To determine whether intravenous administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) before shoulder arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery can improve arthroscopy visual clarity. METHODS This was a prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study. From May 2016 to April 2018, patients requiring arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the TXA group. receiving 1000 mg of TXA intravenously 10 minutes before surgery. or the placebo group. receiving the same volume of plain saline. Patients with pre-existing liver/renal disease, coagulopathy, or concurrent use of anticoagulation medications were excluded. Visual clarity was rated using a Numeric Rating Scale from grade 1 (poor) to grade 3 (clear) every 15 minutes throughout the surgery. Secondary outcomes included estimated perioperative blood loss, operative time, degree of shoulder swelling, postoperative subjective pain score, inpatient duration, and associated comorbidities were recorded. Both parametric and nonparametric methods were used for the statistical analysis. RESULTS In total, 72 patients were enrolled, 37 in the TXA group and 35 in the placebo group. The demographic data were similar between the 2 groups. Visual clarity was found to be significantly better in the TXA group, with a greater percentage of grade 3 vision clarity (53.7 +/- 18.9 % vs 40.5 +/- 22.1%, P = .036). The average visual score in the TXA group (2.5 +/- 0.2) also was better than that of the control group (2.3 +/- 0.3) (P = .048). The postoperative subjective pain score was significantly lower in the TXA group (3.0 +/- 1.5) than in the control group (4.3 +/- 2.0) (P = .009). In addition, postoperative analgesic usage was significant lower in the TXA groups (9.6 +/- 9.7 morphine milligram equivalent) than in the control group (14.7 +/- 13.4 morphine milligram equivalent) (P = .037). Other parameters, such as operative time, estimated perioperative blood loss, degree of shoulder swelling, and duration of inpatient stay were similar between the 2 groups. None of the patients developed complications after surgery. CONCLUSIONS Intravenous administration of TXA is an alternative way to improve visual clarity in arthroscopic shoulder surgery. It also reduces subjective pain and analgesic consumption in the early postoperative period without significant side effects. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic studies level II.