Potentially effective drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 or MIS-C in children: a systematic review
European journal of pediatrics. 2022;:1-12
The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using potential drugs: remdesivir and glucocorticoid in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating MIS-C. We searched seven databases, three preprint platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google from December 1, 2019, to August 5, 2021, to collect evidence of remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and IVIG which were used in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. A total of nine cohort studies and one case series study were included in this systematic review. In terms of remdesivir, the meta-analysis of single-arm cohort studies have shown that after the treatment, 54.7% (95%CI, 10.3 to 99.1%) experienced adverse events, 5.6% (95%CI, 1.2 to 10.1%) died, and 27.0% (95%CI, 0 to 73.0%) needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or invasive mechanical ventilation. As for glucocorticoids, the results of the meta-analysis showed that the fixed-effect summary odds ratio for the association with mortality was 2.79 (95%CI, 0.13 to 60.87), and the mechanical ventilation rate was 3.12 (95%CI, 0.80 to 12.08) for glucocorticoids compared with the control group. In terms of IVIG, most of the included cohort studies showed that for MIS-C patients with more severe clinical symptoms, IVIG combined with methylprednisolone could achieve better clinical efficacy than IVIG alone.Conclusions: Overall, the current evidence in the included studies is insignificant and of low quality. It is recommended to conduct high-quality randomized controlled trials of remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C to provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines. What is Known: • The efficacy and safety of using potential drugs such as remdesivir, glucocorticoid, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19/MIS-C are unclear. What is New: • Overall, the current evidence cannot adequately demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of using remdesivir, glucocorticoids, and IVIG in treating children and adolescents with COVID-19 or MIS-C. • We are calling for the publication of high-quality clinical trials and provide substantial evidence for the development of guidelines.
Comparison of the proximal and distal approaches for axillary vein catheterization under ultrasound guidance (PANDA) in cardiac surgery patients susceptible to bleeding: a randomized controlled trial
Ann Intensive Care. 2020;10(1):90
BACKGROUND The present study aimed at comparing the success rate and safety of proximal versus distal approach for ultrasound (US)-guided axillary vein catheterization (AVC) in cardiac surgery patients susceptible to bleeding. METHODS In this single-center randomized controlled trial, cardiac surgery patients susceptible to bleeding and requiring AVC were randomized to either the proximal or distal approach group for US-guided AVC. Patients susceptible to bleeding were defined as those who received oral antiplatelet drugs or anticoagulants for at least 3 days. Success rate, catheterization time, number of attempts, and mechanical complications within 24 h were recorded for each procedure. RESULTS A total of 198 patients underwent randomization: 99 patients each to the proximal and distal groups. The proximal group had the higher first puncture success rate (75.8% vs. 51.5%, p < 0.001) and site success rate (93.9% vs. 83.8%, p = 0.04) than the distal group. However, the overall success rates between the two groups were similar (99.0% vs. 99.0%; p = 1.00). Moreover, the proximal group had fewer average number of attempts (p < 0.01), less access time (p < 0.001), and less successful cannulation time (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in complications between the two groups, such as major bleeding, minor bleeding, arterial puncture, pneumothorax, nerve injuries, and catheter misplacements. CONCLUSIONS For cardiac surgery patients susceptible to bleeding, both proximal and distal approaches for US-guided AVC can be considered as feasible and safe methods of central venous cannulation. In terms of the first puncture success rate and cannulation time, the proximal approach is superior to the distal approach. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03395691. Registered January 10, 2018, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03395691?cond=NCT03395691&draw=1&rank=1 .
Effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin for children with severe COVID-19: A rapid review
Annals of Translational Medicine. 2020
Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is usually used as supportive therapy, but the treatment of COVID-19 by IVIG is controversial This rapid review aims to explore the clinical effectiveness and safety of IVIG in the treatment of children with severe COVID-19 Methods: We systematically searched the literature on the use of IVIG in patients with COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), including both adults and children We assessed the risk of bias and quality of evidence and reported the main findings descriptively Results: A total of 1,519 articles were identified by initial literature search, and finally six studies met our inclusion criteria, included one randomized controlled trial (RCT), four case series and one case report involving 198 patients One case series showed the survival of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was not improved by IVIG One case report showed high-dose IVIG could improve the outcome of COVID-19 adults Three observational studies showed inconsistent results of the effect of IVIG on SARS patients One RCT showed that IVIG did not reduce mortality or the incidence of nosocomial infection in adults with severe SARS The quality of evidence was between low and very low Conclusions: The existing evidence is insufficient to support the efficacy or safety of IVIG in the treatment of COVID-19
The efficacy and safety of multiple-dose oral tranexamic acid on blood loss following total hip arthroplasty: a randomized controlled trial
International Orthopaedics. 2018
PURPOSES To explore the efficacy and safety of multiple-dose oral tranexamic acid (TXA) on blood loss following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS A total of 152 patients were randomized into three groups to receive 2 g of oral TXA two hours pre-operatively (group A), or another bolus of 2 g of oral TXA four hours post-operatively (group B), or another three boluses of 2 g of oral TXA four, ten, and 16 hours post-operatively (group C). The primary outcomes were total blood loss (TBL), hidden blood loss (HBL), and transfusion rate. The secondary outcomes were haemoglobin (Hb) and haematocrit (Hct) drop, the level of fibrinolysis parameters (fibrin degradation products, D-dimer), and complications (thrombotic diseases, stroke, cardiac infarction, and infection). RESULTS The mean TBL and HBL in group C were lower than those in group A (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001) and group B (p = 0.012 and p = 0.029). The Hb drop on post-operative day one (POD1) and POD3 in group C was lower than those in group A (p < 0.001 and p = 0.029) and group B (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004). The difference was similar regarding Hct drop on POD3 (p < 0.001 and p = 0.014). Moreover, fibrin degradation products and D-dimer in group C were lower than in groups A and B on POD1 and POD3 (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). The incidence of complications such as venous thromboembolism did not differ significantly among the three groups (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Multiple boluses of oral TXA could further reduce blood loss, Hb and Hct drop, and restrain post-operative fibrinolysis in primary THA without increasing the risk of complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE I Therapeutic study.
Efficacy of fibrin glue versus sutures for attaching conjunctival autografts in pterygium surgery: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of evidence
Previous meta-analyses have been conducted to compare the efficacy of fibrin glue (FG) versus sutures in pterygium surgery; however, additional clinical trials have since been published. Therefore, we conducted an updated meta-analysis to further explore the association between FG application in pterygium surgery, and the recurrence rate, complication rate, and surgical duration. An electronic literature search for eligible studies published before July 29, 2016 was conducted across multiple databases. Odds ratios (ORs), standardized mean difference (SMD), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Publication bias of the included articles was evaluated by funnel plots. Differences in recurrence rate and complication rate between the FG and suture groups were evaluated in terms of OR with 95% CI, and SMD with 95% CI were used to estimate the difference in surgical duration. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to determine whether the currently available evidence was sufficient and conclusive. Twenty-four studies were included in this study. The pooled ORs for recurrence rate and complication rate were 0.35 and 1.121, respectively. The pooled SMD for surgical duration was -4.142. The TSA results indicated that evidence of the effect was sufficient in the recurrence group and surgical duration group. Although there was no difference in complication rate between FG and sutures, the apparent advantages of FG over sutures are shorter surgical duration and greater reduction in the recurrence rate of pterygium.