Comparisons of Ultrasound-Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma Intra-Articular Injection and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Treating ARCO I-III Symptomatic Non-Traumatic Femoral Head Necrosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal of pain research. 2022;15:341-354
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a devastating disease, and there is some evidence that extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection might alleviate pain and improve joint function in individuals with ONFH. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of PRP and ESWT in symptomatic ONFH patients. METHODS A total of 60 patients aged 40-79 with unilateral ONFH at Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) stages I, II, and III were randomly assigned to the PRP (N=30) or the ESWT group (N=30). Four treatment sessions were provided in both groups. Assessments were performed at baseline, and 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month. Primary outcomes were measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS), and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs). Secondary outcomes were assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Harris Hip Score (HHS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The linear mixed-model analysis was used to evaluate the differences between groups and within groups and the "group by time" interaction effects. RESULTS There were significant differences between groups in terms of changes over time for VAS, PPTs, WOMAC, and HHS since 3-month and maintained up to 12-month (P<0.05, except for PPTs at 12-month). The simple main effects showed that the patients in PRP group had greater improvements in VAS (mean difference = -0.82, 95% CI [-1.39, -0.25], P=0.005), WOMAC (mean difference = -4.19, 95% CI [-7.00, -1.37], P=0.004), and HHS (mean difference = 5.28, 95% CI [1.94, 8.62], P=0.002). No related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION This study supported the effectiveness and safety of both the PRP injection and ESWT in treating ONFH patients. For symptomatic patients with ONFH, intra-articular PRP injection appeared superior to ESWT in pain relief and functional improvement.
Effect of 6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 on kidney and haemostatic function in cardiac surgical patients: a randomised controlled trial
Whether third-generation hydroxyethyl starch solutions provoke kidney injury or haemostatic abnormalities in patients having cardiac surgery remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that intra-operative administration of a third-generation starch does not worsen postoperative kidney function or haemostasis in cardiac surgical patients compared with human albumin 5%. This triple-blind, non-inferiority, clinical trial randomly allocated patients aged 40-85 who underwent elective aortic valve replacement, with or without coronary artery bypass grafting, to plasma volume replacement with 6% starch 130/0.4 vs. 5% human albumin. Our primary outcome was postoperative urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin concentrations, a sensitive and early marker of postoperative kidney injury. Secondarily, we evaluated urinary interleukin-18; acute kidney injury using creatinine RIFLE criteria, coagulation measures, platelet count and function. Non-inferiority (delta 15%) was assessed with correction for multiple comparisons. We enrolled 141 patients (69 starch, 72 albumin) as planned. Results of the primary analysis demonstrated that postoperative urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (median (IQR [range])) was slightly lower with hydroxyethyl starch (5 (1-68 [0-996]) ng.ml(-1) ) vs. albumin (5 (2-74 [0-1604]) ng.ml(-1) ), although not non-inferior [ratio of geometric means (95%CI) 0.91 (0.57, 1.44); p = 0.15] due to higher than expected variability. Urine interleukin-18 concentrations were reduced, but interleukin-18 and kidney injury were again not non-inferior. Of 11 individual coagulation measures, platelet count and function, nine were non-inferior to albumin. Two remaining measures, thromboelastographic R value and arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, were clinically similar but with wide confidence intervals. Starch administration during cardiac surgery produced similar observed effects on postoperative kidney function, coagulation, platelet count and platelet function compared with albumin, though greater than expected variability and wide confidence intervals precluded the conclusion of non-inferiority. Long-term mortality and kidney function appeared similar between starch and albumin.
Comprehensive assessment of tranexamic acid during orthognathic surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials
Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. 2019
The objective of this study was to comprehensively assess the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) during orthognathic surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials addressing these issues were carried out. Three electronic databases, included PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, were searched until April 30, 2018. Eligible studies were restricted to randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). Weighted mean differences (WMD) for blood loss, operation time, haematocrit, quality of surgical field, and odds ratio (OR) for transfusion rates were pooled for the included studies. Eight randomized, controlled trials were included for analysis. Compared with the control group, the TXA group showed a reduction in intraoperative blood loss of 165.03 ml (p < 0.00001; 95% CI, -200.93 to -129.13 ml), a reduction in the drop of haematocrit of 2.32 g/dl (p < 0.00001; 95% CI, -3.38 to -1.26 g/dl), and an improved quality of surgical field (p < 0.00001; MD, -1.01; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.80). Tranexamic acid has a limited effect on reducing operative time (p < 0.00001; MD, -16.18 min; 95% CI, -19.60 to -12.75 min) and on decreasing the transfusion rates (p = 0.02; OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83).
Topical platelet-derived growth factor vs placebo therapy of diabetic foot ulcers offloaded with windowed casts: a randomized, controlled trial
Wounds-A Compendium of Clinical Research & Practice. 2015;27((4)):83-91.
OBJECTIVE This study sought to compare the efficacy of topical platelet derived growth factor (Regranex, Smith and Nephew, London, UK) (test group) to placebo (control group) in treating diabetic foot ulcers. All subjects had a short leg walking cast with a window fashioned in the cast over the site of the ulcer. METHODS Forty-six subjects were randomized (double-blind) 1:1 to the test or control group and treated for up to 4 months. Subjects had Wagner grade I ulcers with wound area of 1 cm2 to 16 cm2 without severe peripheral arterial disease, osteomyelitis, or any infection requiring antibiotics. Study medication was applied daily and casts changed approximately every 14 days. RESULTS Of the 46 subjects randomized, 38 either healed or completed 16 weeks of therapy without healing. Eight subjects dropped out prior to 16 weeks. Based on intention-to-treat, 12 of 23 (52%) test group subjects healed before 16 weeks compared to 13 of 23 (57%) control group subjects (not significant). Regression analysis demonstrated that slower healing was associated with larger initial wound size (hazard radio [HR] = 0.997, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.995-1.00, P = 0.028) and excessive wound drainage (HR = 0.346, 95% CI: 0.126-0.948, P = 0.039). Excluding the patients who dropped out, 25 of 38 (66%) subjects healed by 4 months. Three additional subjects healed with casts that were worn longer than 4 months, for an overall rate of 74% at 9 months. Five subjects developed cast burns, and 3 patients required amputation. CONCLUSION Topical platelet derived growth factor does not appear to significantly improve healing of Wagner grade I diabetic foot ulcers that are treated by offloading with a short leg walking cast. Excellent healing rates may be achieved with casting alone. RN 0 (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor). 0 (Recombinant Proteins). ES 1943-2704 IL 1044-7946