Management of cancer-associated anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: ASCO/ASH clinical practice guideline update
Bohlius J, Bohlke K, Castelli R, Djulbegovic B, Lustberg MB, Martino M, Mountzios G, Peswani N, Porter L, Tanaka TN, et al
Blood advances. 2019;3(8):1197-1210
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PURPOSE To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/American Society of Hematology (ASH) recommendations for use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in patients with cancer. METHODS PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses of RCTs in patients with cancer published from January 31, 2010, through May 14, 2018. For biosimilar ESAs, the literature search was expanded to include meta-analyses and RCTs in patients with cancer or chronic kidney disease and cohort studies in patients with cancer due to limited RCT evidence in the cancer setting. ASCO and ASH convened an Expert Panel to review the evidence and revise previous recommendations as needed. RESULTS The primary literature review included 15 meta-analyses of RCTs and two RCTs. A growing body of evidence suggests that adding iron to treatment with an ESA may improve hematopoietic response and reduce the likelihood of RBC transfusion. The biosimilar literature review suggested that biosimilars of epoetin alfa have similar efficacy and safety to reference products, although evidence in cancer remains limited. RECOMMENDATIONS ESAs (including biosimilars) may be offered to patients with chemotherapy-associated anemia whose cancer treatment is not curative in intent and whose hemoglobin has declined to < 10 g/dL. RBC transfusion is also an option. With the exception of selected patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, ESAs should not be offered to most patients with nonchemotherapy-associated anemia. During ESA treatment, hemoglobin may be increased to the lowest concentration needed to avoid transfusions. Iron replacement may be used to improve hemoglobin response and reduce RBC transfusions for patients receiving ESA with or without iron deficiency. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/supportive-care-guidelines and www.hematology.org/guidelines.
Safety and effectiveness of a new fibrin pleural air leak sealant: a multicenter, controlled, prospective, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial
Patients with cancer or chronic kidney disease (17 studies).
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) including biosimilars.
Addition of iron to an ESA, placebo or best standard therapy.
A growing body of evidence suggested that adding iron to treatment with an ESA may improve hematopoietic response and reduce the likelihood of red blood cell transfusion. The biosimilar literature review suggested that biosimilars of epoetin alfa have similar efficacy and safety to reference products, although evidence in cancer remained limited.
Gonfiotti A, Santini PF, Jaus M, Janni A, Lococo A, Massimi AR, D'Agostino A, Carleo F, Martino M, Larocca V, et al
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2011;92((4):):1217-24; discussion 1224-5.
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the sealing capacity and safety of a new fibrin sealant (FS) to reduce alveolar air leaks (AALs) after pulmonary resections in a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in 3 Italian centers. METHODS The study randomized (1:1) 185 patients with an intraoperative AAL graded 1 to 3 according to the Macchiarini scale: 91 received FS and 94 had standard lung closure. The primary outcomes were the length of postoperative AAL duration and the mean time to chest drain removal. Other end points included the percentage of patients without AAL, the development of serum antibodies against bovine aprotinin, and any adverse event related to FS. Chest drains were removed when fluid output was 100 mL/day or less, with no air leak. RESULTS The study groups were comparable with respect to demographic variables and surgical procedures. The FS group showed a statistically significant reduction in duration of postoperative AALs (9.52 vs 35.8 hours; p < 0.005) and in the percentage of patients with AALs at wound closure (81.11% vs 100%; p < 0.001); the difference in time to chest drain removal was not significant. Pleural empyema developed in 1 patient with FS treatment vs in 4 with standard treatment, and antibodies against bovine aprotinin were found in 34 of 91 FS-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS The present study showed that the new FS is safe and effective in preventing AALs after lung resections and in shortening the duration of postoperative AALs.