WBC alloimmunization: effects on the laboratory and clinical endpoints of therapeutic granulocyte transfusions
BACKGROUND Although the subject of many previous studies, the importance of white blood cell (WBC) alloimmunization in granulocyte transfusion therapy has not been settled. In this study, we report the results of the effects of WBC antibodies in the RING (Resolving Infection in Neutropenia with Granulocytes) study, a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of daily granulocyte transfusion therapy plus antimicrobials versus antimicrobials alone; the primary outcome results have been published previously. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS One hundred fourteen subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum samples for WBC antibody determination were obtained from each subject at baseline and at 2 and 6 weeks. One hundred subjects had at least one antibody test result. Samples were tested for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class I and Class II antibodies as well as for granulocyte-specific antibodies using granulocyte agglutination and immunofluorescence techniques. All testing was performed at a central laboratory. RESULTS Baseline WBC alloimmunization was modest, depending somewhat on the assay. Seroconversion during the study was slightly higher in the granulocyte transfusion arm, but the differences were not statistically significant. There was no demonstrable effect of the presence of alloimmunization on the primary outcome (survival and microbial response at 42 days), the occurrence of transfusion reactions (either overall or pulmonary), or posttransfusion neutrophil increments. CONCLUSION The presence or development of WBC antibodies had no demonstrable effect on any clinical aspect of granulocyte transfusion therapy. It appears that, at least in the patient population studied, there is no evidence suggesting need for concern about recipient WBC alloimmunization when prescribing granulocyte transfusions.
Effects of red-cell storage duration on patients undergoing cardiac surgery
New England Journal of Medicine. 2015;372((15):):1419-29.
BACKGROUND Some observational studies have reported that transfusion of red-cell units that have been stored for more than 2 to 3 weeks is associated with serious, even fatal, adverse events. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery may be especially vulnerable to the adverse effects of transfusion.METHODS We conducted a randomized trial at multiple sites from 2010 to 2014. Participants 12 years of age or older who were undergoing complex cardiac surgery and were likely to undergo transfusion of red cells were randomly assigned to receive leukocyte-reduced red cells stored for 10 days or less (shorter-term storage group) or for 21 days or more (longer-term storage group) for all intraoperative and postoperative transfusions. The primary outcome was the change in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS; range, 0 to 24, with higher scores indicating more severe organ dysfunction) from the preoperative score to the highest composite score through day 7 or the time of death or discharge.RESULTS The median storage time of red-cell units provided to the 1098 participants who received red-cell transfusion was 7 days in the shorter-term storage group and 28 days in the longer-term storage group. The mean change in MODS was an increase of 8.5 and 8.7 points, respectively (95% confidence interval for the difference, -0.6 to 0.3; P=0.44). The 7-day mortality was 2.8% in the shorter-term storage group and 2.0% in the longer-term storage group (P=0.43); 28-day mortality was 4.4% and 5.3%, respectively (P=0.57). Adverse events did not differ significantly between groups except that hyperbilirubinemia was more common in the longer-term storage group.CONCLUSIONS The duration of red-cell storage was not associated with significant differences in the change in MODS. We did not find that the transfusion of red cells stored for 10 days or less was superior to the transfusion of red cells stored for 21 days or more among patients 12 years of age or older who were undergoing complex cardiac surgery. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; RECESS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991341.).
Efficacy of transfusion with granulocytes from G-CSF/dexamethasone-treated donors in neutropenic patients with infection
High-dose granulocyte transfusion therapy has been available for 20 years, yet its clinical efficacy has never been conclusively demonstrated. We report here the results of RING (Resolving Infection in Neutropenia with Granulocytes), a multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to address this question. Eligible subjects were those with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count <500/muL) and proven/probable/presumed infection. Subjects were randomized to receive either (1) standard antimicrobial therapy or (2) standard antimicrobial therapy plus daily granulocyte transfusions from donors stimulated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone. The primary end point was a composite of survival plus microbial response, at 42 days after randomization. Microbial response was determined by a blinded adjudication panel. Fifty-six subjects were randomized to the granulocyte arm and 58 to the control arm. Transfused subjects received a median of 5 transfusions. Mean transfusion dose was 54.9 x 10(9) granulocytes. Overall success rates were 42% and 43% for the granulocyte and control groups, respectively (P > .99), and 49% and 41%, respectively, for subjects who received their assigned treatments (P = .64). Success rates for granulocyte and control arms did not differ within any infection type. In a post hoc analysis, subjects who received an average dose per transfusion of >0.6 x 10(9) granulocytes per kilogram tended to have better outcomes than those receiving a lower dose. In conclusion, there was no overall effect of granulocyte transfusion on the primary outcome, but because enrollment was half that planned, power to detect a true beneficial effect was low. RING was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00627393. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.
Clinical efficacy and safety of platelets in additive solution treated with two commercial pathogen reduction technologies
Transfusion. 2015;55((Suppl. 3)):3A.. Abstract no. P2-030A.
A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of high-dose granulocyte transfusion therapy in neutropenic patients with infection
Blood. 2014;124((21)): Abstract No. 1354
Persistence of lymphocytotoxic antibodies in patients in the trial to reduce alloimmunization to platelets: implications for using modified blood products
Transfusion Medicine Reviews. 2011;25((2):):102-10.
Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy have significant decreases in alloimmune platelet refractoriness if they receive filter-leukoreduced or UV-B-irradiated vs standard platelet transfusions (3%-5% vs 13%, respectively; P <= .03) with no differences among the treated platelet arms (Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets). Therefore, measuring antibody persistence might identify the best platelets for transfusion. Lymphocytotoxic (LCT) antibody duration was evaluated for association with patient age, sex, prior transfusion and pregnancy history, study-assigned platelet transfusions, and percentage LCT panel reactive antibodies. During the Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets, 145 patients became antibody positive; and 81 (56%) of them subsequently became antibody negative. Using Kaplan-Meier estimates, projected antibody loss was 73% at 1 year. Major factors associated with antibody persistence were prior pregnancy and percentage panel reactive antibody positivity, whereas neither the assigned type of platelets transfused during the 8 weeks of the trial nor prior transfusion history was predictive. After 5 to 8 weeks, the number and type of blood products transfused had no effect on either antibody development or loss. A majority of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia who develop LCT antibodies during induction chemotherapy will lose their antibodies within 4 months regardless of the type or number of blood products they receive.
Dose of prophylactic platelet transfusions and prevention of hemorrhage
The New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;362((7):):600-13.
BACKGROUND We conducted a trial of prophylactic platelet transfusions to evaluate the effect of platelet dose on bleeding in patients with hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. METHODS We randomly assigned hospitalized patients undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation or chemotherapy for hematologic cancers or solid tumors to receive prophylactic platelet transfusions at a low dose, a medium dose, or a high dose (1. 1x10(11), 2. 2x10(11), or 4. 4x10(11) platelets per square meter of body-surface area, respectively), when morning platelet counts were 10,000 per cubic millimeter or lower. Clinical signs of bleeding were assessed daily. The primary end point was bleeding of grade 2 or higher (as defined on the basis of World Health Organization criteria). RESULTS In the 1272 patients who received at least one platelet transfusion, the primary end point was observed in 71%, 69%, and 70% of the patients in the low-dose group, the medium-dose group, and the high-dose group, respectively (differences were not significant). The incidences of higher grades of bleeding, and other adverse events, were similar among the three groups. The median number of platelets transfused was significantly lower in the low-dose group (9. 25x10(11)) than in the medium-dose group (11. 25x10(11)) or the high-dose group (19. 63x10(11)) (P=0. 002 for low vs. medium, P<0. 001 for high vs. low and high vs. medium), but the median number of platelet transfusions given was significantly higher in the low-dose group (five, vs. three in the medium-dose and three in the high-dose group; P<0. 001 for low vs. medium and low vs. high). Bleeding occurred on 25% of the study days on which morning platelet counts were 5000 per cubic millimeter or lower, as compared with 17% of study days on which platelet counts were 6000 to 80,000 per cubic millimeter (P<0. 001). CONCLUSIONS Low doses of platelets administered as a prophylactic transfusion led to a decreased number of platelets transfused per patient but an increased number of transfusions given. At doses between 1. 1x10(11) and 4. 4x10(11) platelets per square meter, the number of platelets in the prophylactic transfusion had no effect on the incidence of bleeding. (ClinicalTrials. gov number, NCT00128713. )
Effects of prophylactic platelet (Plt) dose on transfusion (Tx) outcomes (PLADO Trial)
Blood. 2008;112((11):): Abstract No. 285.
Photochemically treated fresh frozen plasma for transfusion of patients with acquired coagulopathy of liver disease
An ex vivo photochemical treatment (PCT) process was developed to inactivate pathogens in fresh frozen plasma (PCT-FFP). A prospective, controlled, double-blinded, randomized study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of PCT-FFP compared with conventional FFP (C-FFP). Patients (n = 121) with acquired coagulopathy, largely due to liver disease, including hepatic transplantation, were transfused with either PCT-FFP or C-FFP for up to 7 days. Primary end points were changes in the prothrombin time (PT) and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT) in response to the first FFP transfusion. Secondary analyses compared changes in the PT and the PTT, factor VII levels, clinical hemostasis, blood component usage, and safety following FFP transfusions for up to 7 days. Following the first transfusion, correction in the PT and PTT adjusted for FFP dose and patient weight was not different. Changes in the PT were equivalent between treatment groups (P = . 002 by noninferiority). Equivalence was not demonstrated for changes in the PTT. Following multiple transfusions, correction of the PT and the PTT was similar between groups. No differences were observed in use of blood components, clinical hemostasis, or safety. These results suggest PCT-FFP supported hemostasis in the treatment of acquired coagulopathy similarly to conventional FFP.
Platelet dose consistency and its effect on the number of platelet transfusions for support of thrombocytopenia: an analysis of the SPRINT trial of platelets photochemically treated with amotosalen HCl and ultraviolet A light
BACKGROUND The SPRINT trial examined efficacy and safety of photochemically treated (PCT) platelets (PLTs). PCT PLTs were equivalent to untreated (control) PLTs for prevention of bleeding. Transfused PLT dose and corrected count increments (CIs), however, were lower and transfusion intervals were shorter for PCT PLTs, resulting in more PCT than control transfusions. PLT dose was analyzed to determine the impact of the number of PLTs transfused on transfusion requirements. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Transfusion response was compared for patients with all doses of >or=3. 0 x 10(11) and the complementary subset of patients with any dose of fewer than 3. 0 x 10(11). Analyses included comparison of bleeding, number of PLT and red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, transfusion intervals, and CIs between PCT and control groups within each PLT dose subset. RESULTS Mean PLT dose per transfusion in the PCT group was lower than in the control group (3. 7 x 10(11) vs. 4. 0 x 10(11); p<0. 001). More PCT patients received PLT doses of fewer than 3. 0 x 10(11) (n=190) than control patients (n=118; p<0. 01). Comparisons of patients receiving comparable PLT doses showed no significant differences between PCT and control groups for bleeding or number of PLT or RBC transfusions; however, transfusion intervals and CIs were significantly better for the control group. CONCLUSIONS When patients were supported with comparable doses of PCT or conventional PLTs, the mean number of PLT transfusions was similar. Lower CIs and shorter transfusion intervals for PCT PLTs suggest that some PLT injury may occur during PCT. This injury does not result in a detectable increase in bleeding, however.