The effect of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose on health-related quality of life in iron-deficient patients with acute heart failure: the results of the AFFIRM-AHF study
European heart journal. 2021
AIMS: Patients with heart failure (HF) and iron deficiency experience poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We evaluated the impact of intravenous (IV) ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) vs. placebo on HRQoL for the AFFIRM-AHF population. METHODS AND RESULTS The baseline 12-item Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ-12), which was completed for 1058 (535 and 523) patients in the FCM and placebo groups, respectively, was administered prior to randomization and at Weeks 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 52. The baseline KCCQ-12 overall summary score (OSS) mean ± standard error was 38.7 ± 0.9 (FCM group) and 37.1 ± 0.8 (placebo group); corresponding values for the clinical summary score (CSS) were 40.9 ± 0.9 and 40.1 ± 0.9. At Week 2, changes in OSS and CSS were similar for FCM and placebo. From Week 4 to Week 24, patients assigned to FCM had significantly greater improvements in OSS and CSS scores vs. placebo [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval, CI) at Week 4: 2.9 (0.5-5.3, P = 0.018) for OSS and 2.8 (0.3-5.3, P = 0.029) for CSS; adjusted mean difference (95% CI) at Week 24: 3.0 (0.3-5.6, P = 0.028) for OSS and 2.9 (0.2-5.6, P = 0.035) for CSS]. At Week 52, the treatment effect had attenuated but remained in favour of FCM. CONCLUSION In iron-deficient patients with HF and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤50% who had stabilized after an episode of acute HF, treatment with IV FCM, compared with placebo, results in clinically meaningful beneficial effects on HRQoL as early as 4 weeks after treatment initiation, lasting up to Week 24.
Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Derisomaltose Compared to Iron Sucrose for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease With and Without Heart Failure
The American journal of cardiology. 2021
Ferric derisomaltose (FDI) is an intravenous (IV) high-dose iron formulation approved in the US for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adults who are intolerant of/have had an unsatisfactory response to oral iron, or who have non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD). FERWON-NEPHRO was a randomized, open-label, multicenter clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of a single infusion of FDI 1,000 mg versus up to 5 doses of iron sucrose (IS) 200 mg (recommended cumulative dose, 1,000 mg) over 8 weeks in patients with NDD-CKD and iron deficiency anemia. Of 1,525 patients included in the safety analysis, 244 (16%) had a history of heart failure (HF). Overall, the rate of serious or severe hypersensitivity reactions was low and did not differ between treatment groups. Cardiovascular adverse events (AEs) were reported for 9.4% of patients who had HF and 4.2% who did not. Time to first cardiovascular AE was longer following administration of FDI compared with IS (hazard ratio: 0.59 [95% CI: 0.37, 0.92]; p=0.0185), a difference that was similar in patients with or without HF (p=0.908 for interaction). Patients achieved a faster hematological response (assessed by changes in hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations, and increase in transferrin saturation) with FDI versus IS. In conclusion, in patients with NDD-CKD, a single infusion of FDI was safe, well tolerated, and was associated with fewer cardiovascular AEs and a faster hematological response, compared to multiple doses of IS. These effects were similar for patients with and without HF.
Ferric carboxymaltose for iron deficiency at discharge after acute heart failure: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial
Lancet (London, England). 2020
BACKGROUND Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose has been shown to improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure and iron deficiency. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ferric carboxymaltose, compared with placebo, on outcomes in patients who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure. METHODS AFFIRM-AHF was a multicentre, double-blind, randomised trial done at 121 sites in Europe, South America, and Singapore. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, were hospitalised for acute heart failure with concomitant iron deficiency (defined as ferritin <100 μg/L, or 100-299 μg/L with transferrin saturation <20%), and had a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%. Before hospital discharge, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous ferric carboxymaltose or placebo for up to 24 weeks, dosed according to the extent of iron deficiency. To maintain masking of patients and study personnel, treatments were administered in black syringes by personnel not involved in any study assessments. The primary outcome was a composite of total hospitalisations for heart failure and cardiovascular death up to 52 weeks after randomisation, analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and had at least one post-randomisation data point. Secondary outcomes were the composite of total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular death; cardiovascular death; total heart failure hospitalisations; time to first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death; and days lost due to heart failure hospitalisations or cardiovascular death, all evaluated up to 52 weeks after randomisation. Safety was assessed in all patients for whom study treatment was started. A pre-COVID-19 sensitivity analysis on the primary and secondary outcomes was prespecified. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02937454, and has now been completed. FINDINGS Between March 21, 2017, and July 30, 2019, 1525 patients were screened, of whom 1132 patients were randomly assigned to study groups. Study treatment was started in 1110 patients, and 1108 (558 in the carboxymaltose group and 550 in the placebo group) had at least one post-randomisation value. 293 primary events (57·2 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 372 (72·5 per 100 patient-years) occurred in the placebo group (rate ratio [RR] 0·79, 95% CI 0·62-1·01, p=0·059). 370 total cardiovascular hospitalisations and cardiovascular deaths occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 451 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·80, 95% CI 0·64-1·00, p=0·050). There was no difference in cardiovascular death between the two groups (77 [14%] of 558 in the ferric carboxymaltose group vs 78 [14%] in the placebo group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·96, 95% CI 0·70-1·32, p=0·81). 217 total heart failure hospitalisations occurred in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 294 occurred in the placebo group (RR 0·74; 95% CI 0·58-0·94, p=0·013). The composite of first heart failure hospitalisation or cardiovascular death occurred in 181 (32%) patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 209 (38%) in the placebo group (HR 0·80, 95% CI 0·66-0·98, p=0·030). Fewer days were lost due to heart failure hospitalisations and cardiovascular death for patients assigned to ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo (369 days per 100 patient-years vs 548 days per 100 patient-years; RR 0·67, 95% CI 0·47-0·97, p=0·035). Serious adverse events occurred in 250 (45%) of 559 patients in the ferric carboxymaltose group and 282 (51%) of 551 patients in the placebo group. INTERPRETATION In patients with iron deficiency, a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 50%, and who were stabilised after an episode of acute heart failure, treatment with ferric carboxymaltose was safe and reduced the risk of heart failure hospitalisations, with no apparent effect on the risk of cardiovascular death. FUNDING Vifor Pharma.
Effect of Iron Isomaltoside on Skeletal Muscle Energetics in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Iron Deficiency: The FERRIC-HF II Randomized Mechanistic Trial
BACKGROUND Iron repletion augments exercise capacity in chronic heart failure (HF) but there is a lack of mechanistic data explaining how iron could increment exercise performance despite minimal changes in hemoglobin (Hb). Besides Hb, iron is an obligate component of mitochondrial enzymes that generate cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine (PCr). Dynamic phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS) is a noninvasive tool that quantifies in vivo muscle energetics by measuring the kinetics of PCr recovery after exertion. We tested the hypothesis that intravenous (IV) iron repletion in chronic HF enhances skeletal muscle energetics as reflected by shorter PCr recovery half-times (PCr t1/2) on (31)P MRS. METHODS We enrolled 40 patients (50% anemic) with chronic HF, NYHA class≥ II, LVEF≤ 45%, and iron deficiency (ferritin<100mug/L or 100-300mug/L with transferrin saturation [TSAT]< 20%). Subjects underwent stratified (anemic vs non-anemic) randomization (1:1) to a single, double-blinded, total dose infusion of Iron Isomaltoside (IIM) or saline placebo with endpoints reassessed early at 2 weeks post-treatment to minimise confounding from exercise adaptation. The primary endpoint was PCr t1/2 at 2 weeks. Secondary endpoints included adenosine diphosphate recovery half-time (ADP t1/2; energetic marker), iron status, symptoms, Hb, exercise capacity and safety. RESULTS In the total population, treatment groups were similar at baseline. At 2 weeks, IIM improved PCr t1/2 (adjusted difference -6.8s [95% confidence interval 11.5,-2.1], P=0.006), ADP t1/2 (-5.3s [-9.7,-0.9], P=0.02), ferritin (304ng/mL [217,391], P<0.0001), TSAT (6.8% [2.7,10.8], P=0.002), NYHA class (-0.23[-0.46,-0.01], P=0.04), resting respiratory rate (-0.7 breaths/min [-1.2,-0.2], P=0.009) and post-exercise Borg dyspnea score (-2.0[-3.7,-0.3], P=0.04), but not Hb (2.4g/L [-3.5,8.4], P=0.41). Adverse events were similar between groups. In subgroup analyses, IIM improved PCr t1/2 in anemic (-8.4s [-16.7,-0.2], P=0.04) and non-anemic (-5.2s [-10.6,0.2], P=0.06) cohorts. CONCLUSIONS In patients with chronic HF and ID, a total repletion dose of IIM given at a single sitting is well tolerated and associated with faster skeletal muscle PCr t1/2 at 2 weeks, implying better mitochondrial function. Augmented skeletal muscle energetics might therefore be an important mechanism via which iron repletion confers benefits in CHF despite minimal Hb changes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu Unique identifier: EudraCT 2012-005592-13.
Beneficial effects of long-term intravenous iron therapy with ferric carboxymaltose in patients with symptomatic heart failure and iron deficiency
European Heart Journal. 2015;36((11):):657-68.
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and safety of long-term i.v. iron therapy in iron-deficient patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS CONFIRM-HF was a multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 304 ambulatory symptomatic HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, elevated natriuretic peptides, and iron deficiency (ferritin <100 ng/mL or 100-300 ng/mL if transferrin saturation <20%). Patients were randomized 1 : 1 to treatment with i.v. iron, as ferric carboxymaltose (FCM, n = 152) or placebo (saline, n = 152) for 52 weeks. The primary end-point was the change in 6-min-walk-test (6MWT) distance from baseline to Week 24. Secondary end-points included changes in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, Patient Global Assessment (PGA), 6MWT distance, health-related quality of life (QoL), Fatigue Score at Weeks 6, 12, 24, 36, and 52 and the effect of FCM on the rate of hospitalization for worsening HF. Treatment with FCM significantly prolonged 6MWT distance at Week 24 (difference FCM vs. placebo: 33 +/- 11 m, P = 0.002). The treatment effect of FCM was consistent in all subgroups and was sustained to Week 52 (difference FCM vs. placebo: 36 +/- 11 m, P < 0.001). Throughout the study, an improvement in NYHA class, PGA, QoL, and Fatigue Score in patients treated with FCM was detected with statistical significance observed from Week 24 onwards. Treatment with FCM was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospitalizations for worsening HF [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.39 (0.19-0.82), P = 0.009]. The number of deaths (FCM: 12, placebo: 14 deaths) and the incidence of adverse events were comparable between both groups. CONCLUSION Treatment of symptomatic, iron-deficient HF patients with FCM over a 1-year period resulted in sustainable improvement in functional capacity, symptoms, and QoL and may be associated with risk reduction of hospitalization for worsening HF (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01453608).Copyright The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.