Seroprevalence of Dengue and Zika Virus in Blood Donations: A Systematic Review
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2018;33((1):):35-42.
The presence of antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) can be detected in blood donations. Donation-based surveillance provides an alternative strategy to estimate population prevalence by detecting antibodies that are circulating. To estimate population prevalence, we conducted a systematic review of literature on the seroprevalence of ZIKV and DENV antibodies in blood donations. We searched PubMed and Web of Science for studies that reported the seroprevalence of ZIKV and DENV in blood donations. The title and abstract of each study were screened by 2 reviewers simultaneously for possible inclusion, and the full text of selected studies was reviewed to ensure that they met inclusion criteria (used primary data collection, reported evidence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) or immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the blood supply, and included a representative sample of the total population). Immunoglobin test measuring levels of antibodies to IgM and IgG and number of positive cases were extracted from each study. No exclusions were made based on language or country. Our initial search identified 1890 studies after excluding duplicates, of which 76 were assessed for full text eligibility to ensure that they met our final inclusion criteria. There were 14 studies included in our review; 11 examined the seroprevalence of DENV, and 3 examined ZIKV. The highest seroprevalence by IgM was 2.82% for DENV and 0.53% for ZIKV. Our results indicate that the seroprevalence of ZIKV and DENV antibody presence in countries with active transmission is higher than reports by traditional surveillance in some countries. This finding is expected due to the large percentage of asymptomatic cases. The highest seroprevalence was observed for IgG, which can persist over long periods of time compared to IgM. Screening of blood donations may help supplement traditional surveillance measures, especially during outbreak settings.