Use of leukocyte-depleted platelets and cytomegalovirus-seronegative red blood cells for prevention of primary cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplant
Seventy-seven cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seronegative marrow transplant patients were randomized in a prospective controlled trial comparing the use of leukocyte-depleted platelets plus CMV-seronegative red blood cells with standard unscreened blood products for the prevention of primary CMV infection during the first 100 days after transplant. Eligible patients included CMV-seronegative patients undergoing autologous transplant or seronegative patients undergoing allogeneic transplant for aplastic anemia or non-hematologic malignancy who had seronegative marrow donors. Patients and marrow donors were serologically screened for CMV and randomized before conditioning for transplant and followed for CMV infection with weekly cultures of throat, urine, and blood and with weekly CMV serologies until day 100 after transplant. Leukocyte-depleted platelets were prepared by centrifugation, a procedure that removed greater than 99% of leukocytes. There were no CMV infections observed in 35 evaluable treatment patients compared with seven infections in 30 evaluable control patients (P = .0013). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number of platelet concentrates in the treatment patients (164 concentrates) compared with the control patients (126 concentrates). Leukocyte-depleted platelets plus CMV-seronegative red blood cells are highly effective in preventing primary CMV infection after marrow transplant.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific intravenous immunoglobulin for the prevention of primary CMV infection and disease after marrow transplant
Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1991;164((3):):483-7.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific immunoglobulin (IVIG) was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in CMV-seronegative marrow transplant patients with seropositive marrow donors for the prevention of primary CMV infection during the first 100 days after transplant. Patients received 200 mg/kg CMV IVIG on days 8 and 6 before transplant, the day after transplant, weekly for the first month, and then every 2 weeks to complete 10 doses. Patients were followed with weekly CMV cultures and serologic studies and for clinical and histologic evidence of CMV disease. Sixty patients were evaluable in each group. There was significantly less CMV excretion (P = .04) and viremia (P = .01) in the treatment group. However, the incidence of CMV disease including CMV pneumonia, CMV enteritis, and CMV syndrome (fever, leukopenia, hepatitis) was not statistically different. There was also no difference in median time of onset of CMV infection or disease, median number of hospital days, or survival between the two groups.
Immunomodulatory and antimicrobial efficacy of intravenous immunoglobulin in bone marrow transplantation
New England Journal of Medicine. 1990;323((11):):705-12.
BACKGROUND Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Since intravenous immunoglobulin has shown benefit in several immunodeficiency and autoimmune disorders, we studied its antimicrobial and immunomodulatory role after marrow transplantation. METHODS In a randomized trial of 382 patients, transplant recipients given immunoglobulin (500 mg per kilogram of body weight weekly to day 90, then monthly to day 360 after transplantation) were compared with controls not given immunoglobulin. By chance, the immunoglobulin group included more patients with advanced-stage neoplasms; otherwise, the study groups were balanced for prognostic factors. RESULTS Control patients seronegative for cytomegalovirus who received seronegative blood products remained seronegative, but seronegative patients who received immunoglobulin and screened blood had a passive transfer of cytomegalovirus antibody (median titer, 1:64). Among the 61 seronegative patients who could be evaluated, none contracted interstitial pneumonia; among the 308 seropositive patients evaluated, 22 percent of control patients and 13 percent of immunoglobulin recipients had this complication (P = 0.021). Control patients had an increased risk of gram-negative septicemia (relative risk = 2.65, P = 0.0039) and local infection (relative risk = 1.36, P = 0.029) and received 51 more units of platelets than did immunoglobulin recipients. Neither survival nor the risk of relapse was altered by immunoglobulin. However, among patients greater than or equal to 20 years old, there was a reduction in the incidence of acute GVHD (51 percent in controls vs. 34 percent in immunoglobulin recipients; P = 0.0051) and a decrease in deaths due to transplant-related causes after transplantation of HLA-identical marrow (46 percent vs. 30 percent; P = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS Passive immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin decreases the risk of acute GVHD, associated interstitial pneumonia, and infections after bone marrow transplantation.
The effect of prophylactic intravenous immune globulin on the incidence of septicemia in marrow transplant recipients
Bone Marrow Transplantation. 1987;2((2):):141-7.
Ninety-seven patients randomized to receive (45 patients) or not to receive (52 patients) intravenous cytomegalovirus immune globulin before and after allogeneic marrow transplantation were evaluated retrospectively for the occurrence of bacterial and fungal septicemia in the first 100 days post-transplant. In a proportional hazards regression test, infection prevention regimens, immunoglobulin administration, age and occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease were tested simultaneously for the occurrence of septicemia in the pre- and post-engraftment period. Of these factors, only patients receiving immunoglobulin had significantly fewer episodes of septicemia following engraftment with 11 (26%) patients in the globulin group having 14 episodes compared to 22 (42%) patients in the control group having 27 episodes (p = 0.039). None of the patients experienced complications with the immunoglobulin infusions. These results suggest that the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin may be a practical and effective method to decrease the incidence of septicemia following marrow transplantation.
Prevention of nosocomial infections in marrow transplant patients: a prospective randomized comparison of systemic antibiotics versus granulocyte transfusions
Infection Control. 1986;7((12):):586-92.
One hundred twelve patients with hematologic malignancies underwent marrow transplantation from HLA-matched sibling donors and were randomized to receive either prophylactic granulocyte transfusions (PG, 67 patients) or prophylactic systemic antibiotics (PSA, 45 patients) as prophylaxis against nosocomial infections. Patients were treated in conventional hospital rooms and studied until day 100 post-transplant. For the entire study period, 26 patients (39%) in the PG group developed septicemia compared to 15 patients (33%) in the PSA group. Twenty-eight patients (42%) in the PG group developed local major infections compared to 19 patients (42%) in the PSA group. Ten patients (15%) in the PG group developed viral interstitial pneumonitis compared to 6 patients (13%) in the PSA group. None of these differences were statistically significant. There was no difference in the incidence of bacterial or fungal infections or viral interstitial pneumonitis between the two groups during the granulocytopenic or post-engraftment period. There was no difference in the incidence and severity of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). Inability to carry out the prophylaxis was frequent in the PG group, with complications necessitating discontinuance of transfusion in 24% of the recipients and 13% of the donors. The use of PG as an infection prophylaxis modality in marrow transplantation is not supported by this study, as it is difficult to carry out and because PG did not show any advantage over the use of PSA in preventing nosocomial infections.
Cytomegalovirus immune globulin and seronegative blood products to prevent primary cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplantation
New England Journal of Medicine. 1986;314((16):):1006-10.
In an attempt to prevent primary cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplantation, we randomly assigned 97 patients who were seronegative for antibody to cytomegalovirus before transplantation to receive one of the following: (1) both intravenous cytomegalovirus immune globulin and seronegative blood products (23 patients); (2) seronegative blood products alone (28 patients); (3) globulin alone (22 patients); or (4) neither treatment (24 patients). Patients not assigned to receive seronegative blood products received unscreened blood products from random donors. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection according to study group among patients in the study for at least 62 days was 5 percent, 13 percent, 24 percent, and 40 percent, respectively. Among 57 patients with seronegative marrow donors, those who received seronegative blood products had significantly less infection (1 of 32) than those who received standard blood products (8 of 25, P less than 0.007). In contrast, the use of seronegative blood products did not appear to prevent cytomegalovirus infection among patients with seropositive marrow donors. The possibility that cytomegalovirus immune globulin as used in this study can prevent cytomegalovirus infection or ameliorate cytomegalovirus disease was not confirmed, and it cannot be recommended for routine use without additional study.
Early infectious complications in allogeneic marrow transplant recipients with acute leukemia: effects of prophylactic measures
One hundred eighty-two patients with acute leukemia underwent allogeneic marrow transplantation and received one of two forms of infection prophylaxis: isolation and decontamination procedures in laminar air flow rooms (90 patients) or prophylactic granulocyte transfusion from a single family member (92 patients). Infection acquisition and survival were analyzed from the time of admission to 100 days posttransplant. There were 20 major local infections in the laminar air flow group and 16 in the prophylactic granulocyte group. Of the patients in the laminar air flow group, 24 (27%) had 27 episodes of bacteremia, while 23 (25%) of the prophylactic granulocyte group had 25 episodes of bacteremia. There were no significant differences in infection acquisition between the two groups during the period of granulocytopenia or after engraftment. The mortality during the first 100 days was 28% for the laminar air flow group and 35% for the prophylactic granulocyte group. Thirteen patients (14%) in the laminar air flow group and five (5%) in the prophylactic granulocyte group died with bacterial or fungal infections. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in overall incidence of or mortality from interstitial pneumonitis which was the predominant cause of death. However, the subset of patients who were seronegative for cytomegalovirus antibody at the time of transplant and received granulocytes from seropositive donors had a significantly higher incidence of and mortality from cytomegalovirus interstitial pneumonitis.
Prevention of cytomegalovirus infection by cytomegalovirus immune globulin after marrow transplantation
Annals of Internal Medicine. 1983;98((4):):442-6.
In an effort to prevent cytomegalovirus infection among seronegative patients having marrow transplants, a globulin with high antibody levels against cytomegalovirus was given before and for 11 weeks after transplantation in a randomized trial. Among 36 patients who received no prophylactic granulocyte transfusions, globulin recipients had significantly fewer infections than controls (2 of 17 versus 8 of 19, p = 0.05 by Fisher's exact test and p = 0.03 by Mantel-Cox test). Conversely, infection rates were high and unchanged by globulin use among patients who received granulocytes from seropositive donors (7 of 8 recipients versus 6 of 7 controls). The lack of effect of the globulin among patients receiving transfusions of granulocytes from seropositive donors may suggest that the dose of antibody was insufficient or that antibody is ineffective against virus transmitted in granulocytes. We conclude that cytomegalovirus infection can be prevented by immunoprophylaxis in seronegative patients having marrow transplants who are not given granulocyte transfusions.